Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.
Job Analyses and HR PlanningJob Analyses and HR Planning
Compiled by
Chanakya P. Rijal, PhD in Leadership
Head of Research...
Job Analyses: What it is…Job Analyses: What it is…
 It is a process by which an organization establishes the
nature of di...
HR Planning: What it is…HR Planning: What it is…
 It is a process by which an organization ensures
that it has the right ...
Organizational & HR PlanningOrganizational & HR Planning
|
March 23, 2015 4Job Analyses & HR Planning
Relationship to Organizational PlanningRelationship to Organizational Planning
 Derived from long-term operational plans ...
HRP Link to the Business StrategyHRP Link to the Business Strategy
 Be familiar with the business strategy.
 Ensure that...
ImportanceImportance
1. It helps in assessing required personnel need with necessary
qualifications, skills, knowledge, ex...
Organizational Objectives and Policies in HRPOrganizational Objectives and Policies in HRP
 Downsizing or Expansion
 Acq...
Characteristics of an effective HR planCharacteristics of an effective HR plan
1. Real-time personnel needs-based projecti...
Human Resource Planning Process
External Environment
Internal Environment
10
Strategic Planning
Human Resource Planning
Fo...
Strategic HR Planning ProcessStrategic HR Planning Process
Step I: Strategic analyses
Step II: Job analyses
Step III: Fore...
Human Resource Planning ProcessHuman Resource Planning Process
March 23, 2015 12Job Analyses & HR Planning
Factors Affecting the Time Frame of HRPFactors Affecting the Time Frame of HRP
Forecast
Factor
Demand
Supply
Net
needs
Sho...
Common Pitfalls in HRPCommon Pitfalls in HRP
1. Lack of top management support
2. Lack of adequate initial effort
3. Lack ...
JOB ANALYSIS
15March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
Job AnalysisJob Analysis
 Process of collecting and studying information
relating to the operations and responsibilities ...
Strategic PlanningStrategic Planning
The process by which top management determines
overall organizational purposes and ob...
Purpose or Uses of Job AnalysisPurpose or Uses of Job Analysis
• Organization and manpower planning
• Recruitment and sele...
Few DefinitionsFew Definitions
Job consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an
organization to achieve its ...
Types of Job Analysis InformationTypes of Job Analysis Information
Considerable information is needed, such as:
• Worker-o...
Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job AnalysisSummary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis
Work Activi...
Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management ToolJob Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool
22
 Human Resour...
Steps in Job AnalysisSteps in Job Analysis
Collection of Organisational Structure Information
Selection of Representative ...
Job AnalysisJob Analysis
Process of Obtaining all Pertinent Job FactsProcess of Obtaining all Pertinent Job Facts
Job Desc...
Human Resource ForecastingHuman Resource Forecasting
• HR Forecasting attempts to
determine the supply and
demand for vari...
Sources of Job Analysis InformationSources of Job Analysis Information
• Manager
• Incumbent
• Suppliers
• Marketers
• Job...
Job Analysis MethodsJob Analysis Methods
• Questionnaires
– PAQ
– Functional job analysis
• Observation
– Critical inciden...
Timeliness of Job AnalysisTimeliness of Job Analysis
Rapid pace of
technological change
makes need for
accurate job analys...
Forecasting HR RequirementsForecasting HR Requirements
• Estimate of numbers and kinds of employees the
organization will ...
The Relationship of Sales Volume to Number of Employees
30
Number of
Employees
500
400
300
200
100
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Sal...
HR Forecasting ApproachesHR Forecasting Approaches
1. Zero-based forecasting: Uses current level as
starting point for det...
Techniques of HR ForecastingTechniques of HR Forecasting
1. Managerial Judgment
2. Trend Analysis
3. Ratio Analysis
4. Sca...
1. Managerial Judgment
This techniques is very simple. In this, manager sit together,
discuss and arrive at a figure which...
3. Ratio Analysis
Another approach of making forecasts based on the ratio
between --
1.Some causal factors (like sales vol...
PERSONNEL / YIELD RATIOS
Past experience has developed these yield ratios for recruiting a Cost Accountant:
FOR EVERY 12 A...
5. Computerized Forecast
The determination of future staff needs by projecting a firm’s
sales, volume of production, and p...
7. Delphi Technique
This technique calls for a facilitator to solicit and collate written, expert
opinion on labor forecas...
9. Econometric Models
Econometric models for estimation of manpower requirement differ
from the statistical methods. Past ...
11. HR Budget and Planning Analysis
Among several other ways to estimate the future demand for
human resources, budget and...
13. Workforce Analysis
It means, to determine the rate of influx and out flow of
employee. It is through this analysis one...
Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS)Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS)
Virtually all HR management functions c...
HR Demand Forecast
Process of estimating future quantity and quality of manpower required for an
organization.
External fa...
HR Supply ForecastHR Supply Forecast
Process of estimating future quantity and quality of manpower
available internally & ...
Existing Human ResourcesExisting Human Resources
Capability / Skills Inventory using HR Information System
General Informa...
Skills Inventory Form Used by PPG Industries
March 23, 2015 45Job Analyses & HR Planning
Internal Supply
 Inflows & Outflows - The number of losses & gains of staff
is estimated.
 Turnover Rate - refers to rat...
Forecasting HR AvailabilityForecasting HR Availability
• Determining whether the firm will be able to secure
employees wit...
External Supply
• External recruitment, selection & placement - Advertisements,
Manpower Consultants, Campus Recruitment, ...
Determining Labor Supply
Predicting Worker Flows and Availabilities
Succession or Replacement Charts
Who has been groomed/...
Determining Labor Surplus or ShortageDetermining Labor Surplus or Shortage
• Based on the forecasts for labor demand and
s...
Surplus of EmployeesSurplus of Employees
• Restricted hiring: employees who leave are not
replaced.
• Reduced hours
• Earl...
Shortage of Workers ForecastedShortage of Workers Forecasted
• Creative recruiting
• Compensation incentives: premium pay ...
SUCCESSION PLANNING
REPLACEMENT CHART
FOR EXECUTIVE POSITIONS
POSITION REPLACEMENT CARDS
FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL POSITION
- - ...
HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEMS (HRIS)
PERSONAL DATA
Age, Gender, Dependents, Marital status, etc
EDUCATION & SKILLS
De...
Job Analysis and the LawJob Analysis and the Law
Fair Labor Standards Act: employees categorized as exempt
or nonexempt.
E...
HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM
Goal: Integrate Core Processes into Seamless System
56
Input Data Types
Job Analysis
Rec...
Job DesignJob Design
Process of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the
methods used in performing these tasks...
HR Recruitment and Selection ProcessHR Recruitment and Selection Process
Activities, time involvement and cost incurred
ha...
Sources of RecruitmentSources of Recruitment
Sources within the companySources within the company
1. Company personnel ref...
Selection ApproachesSelection Approaches
1. Resume screening and experience, skill competence and maturity
analyses
2. Abi...
Selection PredictorsSelection Predictors
 HR planning
 Forecasting of personnel demand and supply
 Forecasting institut...
Selection TechniquesSelection Techniques
Formal vs. informal
Solicited vs. unsolicited
Internal vs. external
Domestic vs. ...
Próxima SlideShare
Cargando en…5
×

Job analyses and hr planning

15.106 visualizaciones

Publicado el

This presentation provides with detailed pragmatic insights on how to perform job analyses and HR planning in an organization.

Publicado en: Educación
  • Inicia sesión para ver los comentarios

Job analyses and hr planning

  1. 1. Job Analyses and HR PlanningJob Analyses and HR Planning Compiled by Chanakya P. Rijal, PhD in Leadership Head of Research and Development and Academic Advisor Nepal College of Management In Affiliation with Kathmandu University, School of Management [Spring: 2015] March 23, 2015 1Job Analyses & HR Planning
  2. 2. Job Analyses: What it is…Job Analyses: What it is…  It is a process by which an organization establishes the nature of diversity and intensity of various jobs performed.  The main aim of performing job analyses in an organization is to establish the task identity and weightage of various jobs performed and finally leading to determination of various job holding positions with accurate forecasting to HR strength required for the organization.  In fact, it is an HR planning tool.  More details will be provided in later section of this presentation. March 23, 2015 2Job Analyses & HR Planning
  3. 3. HR Planning: What it is…HR Planning: What it is…  It is a process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kind of people at the right place and at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that help the organization achieve its overall objectives.  Organizations need to do human resource planning so they can meet business objectives and gain a competitive advantage over competitors. March 23, 2015 3Job Analyses & HR Planning
  4. 4. Organizational & HR PlanningOrganizational & HR Planning | March 23, 2015 4Job Analyses & HR Planning
  5. 5. Relationship to Organizational PlanningRelationship to Organizational Planning  Derived from long-term operational plans of organization.  Seeks to identify various HR factors critical to success of organization.  Should provide for -- – Clear statement of organization’s mission – Commitment of staff members to mission – Explicit statement of assumptions – Plan of action March 23, 2015 5Job Analyses & HR Planning
  6. 6. HRP Link to the Business StrategyHRP Link to the Business Strategy  Be familiar with the business strategy.  Ensure that all traditional human resource programs are satisfying the needs of senior and functional management.  Identify the human resource implications of the organization’s business strategy.  Identify those human resource issues that may affect business objectives, and notify the appropriate functional managers.  Convert business objectives into human resource objectives that can provide the foundation for a strategic human resource plan.  Review the strategic-planning process to identify new opportunities to involve human resource personnel. March 23, 2015 6Job Analyses & HR Planning
  7. 7. ImportanceImportance 1. It helps in assessing required personnel need with necessary qualifications, skills, knowledge, experience and aptitude. 2. It also helps in establishing HR replacement plan in time. 3. It helps meeting manpower shortages due to labor turnover. 4. Helps meeting personnel needs of expansion or downsizing programs. 5. Helps to avoid surplus or deficiency of labor in future. 6. It supports to cope with changes in competitive forces, markets, technology, products and government regulations. 7. Supports in complying with labor or employment laws and regulations. March 23, 2015 7Job Analyses & HR Planning
  8. 8. Organizational Objectives and Policies in HRPOrganizational Objectives and Policies in HRP  Downsizing or Expansion  Acquisition , Merger or Sell-out  Technology Up-gradation or Automation  New Markets and New Products  External Vs Internal Hiring  Training and Re-training  Union Constraints March 23, 2015 8Job Analyses & HR Planning
  9. 9. Characteristics of an effective HR planCharacteristics of an effective HR plan 1. Real-time personnel needs-based projection. 2. Futuristic plan of action. 3. Matching with organization’s future institutional and functional strategies. 4. Balance between time, load of workforce, sources of recruitment and selection and cost of recruitment and selection. 5. Compliance with environmental changes. March 23, 2015 9Job Analyses & HR Planning
  10. 10. Human Resource Planning Process External Environment Internal Environment 10 Strategic Planning Human Resource Planning Forecasting HR Requirement Comparing Requirements and Availability Forecasting HR Availability Surplus of Workers Demand = Supply No Action Restricted Hiring, Reduced Hours, Early Retirement, Layoff, Downsizing Shortage of Workers Recruitment Selection March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  11. 11. Strategic HR Planning ProcessStrategic HR Planning Process Step I: Strategic analyses Step II: Job analyses Step III: Forecasting labor demand and supply Step IV: Establishing mechanism for HR recruitment and selection Step V: Establishing mechanism for HR training and development Step VI: Establishing HR performance management system Step VII: Establishing HR relationship management system March 23, 2015 11Job Analyses & HR Planning
  12. 12. Human Resource Planning ProcessHuman Resource Planning Process March 23, 2015 12Job Analyses & HR Planning
  13. 13. Factors Affecting the Time Frame of HRPFactors Affecting the Time Frame of HRP Forecast Factor Demand Supply Net needs Short Range (0-2 Years) Authorized employment including growth, changes, and turnover Employee consensus less expected losses plus expected promotions from subordinate groups Numbers and kinds of employees needed Intermediate Range (2-5 Years) Operating needs from budgets and plans Human resource vacancies expected from individual promotability data derived from development plans Numbers, kinds, dates and levels of needs Long Range (Beyond 5 Years) In some organizations, the same as “intermediate”; in others, an increased awareness of changes in environment and technology— essentially judgmental. Management expectations of changing characteristics of employees and future available human resources. Management expectations of future conditions affecting immediate decisions. March 23, 2015 13Job Analyses & HR Planning
  14. 14. Common Pitfalls in HRPCommon Pitfalls in HRP 1. Lack of top management support 2. Lack of adequate initial effort 3. Lack of coordination with other management and HR functions 4. Failure to integration with organizational plans 5. Messed up with quantitative and qualitative approaches 6. Noninvolvement of operating managers 7. The techniques trap March 23, 2015 14Job Analyses & HR Planning
  15. 15. JOB ANALYSIS 15March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  16. 16. Job AnalysisJob Analysis  Process of collecting and studying information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job.  Determination of tasks which comprise the job and of skills, knowledge, abilities and responsibilities required of the worker for a successful performance and which differentiates one job from all others.  Products of Job Analysis are Job Description and Job Specification. March 23, 2015 16Job Analyses & HR Planning
  17. 17. Strategic PlanningStrategic Planning The process by which top management determines overall organizational purposes and objectives and how they are to be achieved. 17 Human Resource PlanningHuman Resource Planning The process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure that the required number of employees, with the required skills, are available when they are needed. Job analyses is the part of HR planning which is part of strategic planning of an organization. Strategic Planning Significance of Job AnalysesStrategic Planning Significance of Job Analyses March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  18. 18. Purpose or Uses of Job AnalysisPurpose or Uses of Job Analysis • Organization and manpower planning • Recruitment and selection • Job evaluation and wage, salary administration • Job re-engineering • Employee training and managerial development • Performance appraisal • Health and safety March 23, 2015 18Job Analyses & HR Planning
  19. 19. Few DefinitionsFew Definitions Job consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals. Position refers to the collection of responsibilities and tasks performed by a person holding a designated place in an organization. Job analysis is a systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization. Job description is a document providing information regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a position. Job specification contains the minimum required qualifications to perform a particular job. 19March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  20. 20. Types of Job Analysis InformationTypes of Job Analysis Information Considerable information is needed, such as: • Worker-oriented activities • Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used • Job-related tangibles and intangibles • Work performance • Job content • Personal requirements for the job 20March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  21. 21. Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job AnalysisSummary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis Work Activities: work activities and processes, activity records (e.g., film form), procedures used, personal responsibility. Worker-oriented activities: human behavior, such as physical actions and communicating on the job, elemental motions for methods analysis, personal job demands, such as energy expenditure. Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used Job-related tangibles and intangibles: knowledge dealt/applied (e.g. accounting), materials processed, products made, services performed. Work performance: error analysis; work standards; work measurements, such as time taken for a task. Job context: work schedule, financial and nonfinancial incentives, physical working conditions, organizational and social contexts. Personal requirements for the job: personal attributes such as personality, interests, education and training required, work experience. 21March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  22. 22. Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management ToolJob Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool 22  Human Resource Planning  Recruitment  Selection  Training and Development  Performance Appraisal  Compensation and Benefits  Safety and Health  Employee and Labor Relations  Legal Considerations  Job Analysis for Teams Tasks Responsibilities Duties Job Analysis Job Descriptions Job Specifications Knowledge Skills Abilities March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  23. 23. Steps in Job AnalysisSteps in Job Analysis Collection of Organisational Structure Information Selection of Representative Position to be Analysed Collection of Job Analysis Data Developing Job Description Developing Job Specification March 23, 2015 23Job Analyses & HR Planning
  24. 24. Job AnalysisJob Analysis Process of Obtaining all Pertinent Job FactsProcess of Obtaining all Pertinent Job Facts Job Description A proper definition & design of work. A statement containing: Job Title Location Job Summary Duties & Responsibilities Materials, Tools & Equipment used Forms & reports handled Supervision given / received Working conditions Hazards & Safety precautions Job Specification A statement of human qualifications necessary to do the job containing: Education & Qualifications Experience & Training Knowledge & Skills Communication skills Physical requirements - Height, Weight, Age Personality requirements - Appearance, Judgement, Initiative, Emotional stability March 23, 2015 24Job Analyses & HR Planning
  25. 25. Human Resource ForecastingHuman Resource Forecasting • HR Forecasting attempts to determine the supply and demand for various types of human resources, and to predict areas within the organization where there will be labor shortages or surpluses. There are three major steps to forecasting: 1. Forecasting the demand for labor 2. Determining labor supply 3. Determining labor surpluses and shortages March 23, 2015 25Job Analyses & HR Planning
  26. 26. Sources of Job Analysis InformationSources of Job Analysis Information • Manager • Incumbent • Suppliers • Marketers • Job Analyst • Internet • Collateral Materials • Others 26March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  27. 27. Job Analysis MethodsJob Analysis Methods • Questionnaires – PAQ – Functional job analysis • Observation – Critical incident technique • Interviews • Employee recording • Combination of methods 27March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  28. 28. Timeliness of Job AnalysisTimeliness of Job Analysis Rapid pace of technological change makes need for accurate job analysis even more important now and in the future. 28March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  29. 29. Forecasting HR RequirementsForecasting HR Requirements • Estimate of numbers and kinds of employees the organization will need at future dates. • Demand for firm’s goods or services must be forecast. • Forecast is then converted into people requirements. 29March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  30. 30. The Relationship of Sales Volume to Number of Employees 30 Number of Employees 500 400 300 200 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Sales (thousands) March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  31. 31. HR Forecasting ApproachesHR Forecasting Approaches 1. Zero-based forecasting: Uses current level as starting point for determining future staffing needs. 2. Bottom-up approach: Each level of organization, starting with lowest, forecasts its requirements to provide aggregate of employment needs. 3. Mathematical models: Relationship between sales demand and number of employees needed. 4. Simulations: Experimenting with real-world situations through mathematical modeling. 31March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  32. 32. Techniques of HR ForecastingTechniques of HR Forecasting 1. Managerial Judgment 2. Trend Analysis 3. Ratio Analysis 4. Scatter Plot 5. Computerized Forecast 6. Work Study Technique 7. Delphi technique 8. Regression Analysis 9. Econometric Models 10. Nominal Group Technique 11. HR Budget and Planning Analysis 12. Scenario Forecasting 13. Workforce Analysis 14. Workload Analysis 15. Job Analysis March 23, 2015 32Job Analyses & HR Planning
  33. 33. 1. Managerial Judgment This techniques is very simple. In this, manager sit together, discuss and arrive at a figure which would be the future demand for labor. The technique may involve a ‘bottom-to- top’ or ‘top-to-bottom’ approach. 2. Trend Analysis Method which forecast employments requirements on the basis of some organizational index and is one of the most commonly used approaches for projecting HR demand. 1.Business Factor Annual Volume of Sales. 2.Total Number of Employees. 3.Compare the Productivity Ratio. 4.Calculate Human Resources demand. 5.Forecasted Human Resource Requirements. March 23, 2015 33Job Analyses & HR Planning
  34. 34. 3. Ratio Analysis Another approach of making forecasts based on the ratio between -- 1.Some causal factors (like sales volume) 2.The number of employees required 4. Scatter Plot A graphical method used to help identify the relationship between two variables. A scatter plot is another option. HR planner can use scatter plots to determine whether two factors – measure of business activity and staffing levels are related. March 23, 2015 34Job Analyses & HR Planning
  35. 35. PERSONNEL / YIELD RATIOS Past experience has developed these yield ratios for recruiting a Cost Accountant: FOR EVERY 12 APPLICATIONS RECEIVED, ONLY 1 LOOKS PROMISING ENOUGH TO INVITE FOR AN INTERVIEW OF EVERY 5 PERSONS INTERVIEWED, ONLY 1 IS ACTUALLY OFFERED A POSITION IN THE ORGANIZATION OF EVERY 3 JOB OFFERS MADE, ONLY 2 ACCEPT THE POSITION OF EVERY 10 NEW WORKERS WHO BEGIN THE TRAINING PROGRAM, ONLY 9 SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETE THE PROGRAM THUS: 100 APPLICATIONS MUST BE RECEIVED, so that 8.33 JOB INTERVIEWS CAN BE HELD, so that 1.67 JOB OFFERS CAN BE MADE, and 1.11 PEOPLE MUST BE TRAINED, so that we get ONE NEW COST ACCOUNTANT!!! March 23, 2015 35Job Analyses & HR Planning
  36. 36. 5. Computerized Forecast The determination of future staff needs by projecting a firm’s sales, volume of production, and personnel required to maintain this required volume of output, using computers and software packages. Employers also used computerized system to personnel requirements . 6. Work Study Technique Work study technique is based on the volume operation and work efficiency of personnel. Volume of operation is derived from the organizational plan documents and increase or decrease in operation can be measured. Planned output Standard output per hour x standard hours per person March 23, 2015 36Job Analyses & HR Planning
  37. 37. 7. Delphi Technique This technique calls for a facilitator to solicit and collate written, expert opinion on labor forecast. After answer are received, a summary of the information is developed and distributed to the expert, who are than requested to submit revised forecast. Expert never meet face-to-face, but rather communicate through the facilitator. 8. Regression Analysis Regression analysis identifies the movement of two or more inter- related series. It is used to measure the changes in a variable as a result of changes in other variables. Regression analysis determines the relationship between Y variables such as the number of employees and X variables such as service delivery by actually measuring the relationship that existed in the past. Use of the method begins with a series of observation each costing of a value for the Y variable plus a value for each X variable. March 23, 2015 37Job Analyses & HR Planning
  38. 38. 9. Econometric Models Econometric models for estimation of manpower requirement differ from the statistical methods. Past statistical data are analyzed in the hope that it will prove possible to describe precisely the relationships between a number of variables in mathematical and statistical terms. 10. Nominal Group Technique The nominal group technique is a decision making method for use among groups of many sizes, who want to make their decision quickly, as by a vote, but want everyone’s opinions taken into traditional voting. I.Introduction and Explanation II.Silent Generation of Ideas III.Sharing Ideas IV.Group Discussion V.Voting and Ranking March 23, 2015 38Job Analyses & HR Planning
  39. 39. 11. HR Budget and Planning Analysis Among several other ways to estimate the future demand for human resources, budget and planning analysis is an approach applicable when new ventures complicate employment planning. Planners can use new-venture analysis.12. Scenario Forecasting This techniques is used to explore the likelihood of possible future developments and changes and to identify the interaction of uncertain future trends and events. Preparation of Background Selection of Critical Indicators Establishing Past Behavior of Indicators Verification of Potential Future Events Forecasting the Indicators Writing of ScenariosMarch 23, 2015 39Job Analyses & HR Planning
  40. 40. 13. Workforce Analysis It means, to determine the rate of influx and out flow of employee. It is through this analysis one can calculate the labor turnover rate, absenteeism rate etc. 14. Workload Analysis It is a method that uses information about the actual content of work based on a job analysis of the work. Workload analysis involves use of ratios to determine HR requirement. Both the number of employees and the kind of employees required to achieve organizational goals are identified. 15. Job Analysis It helps in finding out the abilities or skills required to do the jobs efficiently. A detailed study of jobs is usually made to identify the qualification and experience required for them. March 23, 2015 40Job Analyses & HR Planning
  41. 41. Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS)Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) Virtually all HR management functions can be enhanced through the use of an HRIS; any organized approach for obtaining relevant and time information on which to base HR decisions. 41March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  42. 42. HR Demand Forecast Process of estimating future quantity and quality of manpower required for an organization. External factors - competition, laws and regulation, economic climate, changes in technology and social factors Internal factors - budget constraints, production levels, new products & services, organizational structure & employee separations March 23, 2015 42Job Analyses & HR Planning
  43. 43. HR Supply ForecastHR Supply Forecast Process of estimating future quantity and quality of manpower available internally & externally to an organization. Supply Analysis Existing Human Resources Internal Sources of Supply External Sources of Supply March 23, 2015 43Job Analyses & HR Planning
  44. 44. Existing Human ResourcesExisting Human Resources Capability / Skills Inventory using HR Information System General Information - Name: Present Address: Department: Sex: Designation: DOB: DOJ: Marital Salary: Status: Permanent Address: Grade: Qualification - Degree/Diploma Institution Class Year of Pass Experience/Skills - Job Title/ Organisation Brief Skill/ Appointment Responsibilities Specialisation Outstanding Achievement / Additional Information - Awards Performance Disciplinary Action Promotions Merit Rating Absenteeism Achievements Career Plans: March 23, 2015 44Job Analyses & HR Planning
  45. 45. Skills Inventory Form Used by PPG Industries March 23, 2015 45Job Analyses & HR Planning
  46. 46. Internal Supply  Inflows & Outflows - The number of losses & gains of staff is estimated.  Turnover Rate - refers to rate of employees leaving. = ( No. of separations in a year / Avg no. of employees during the year ) x 100  Absenteeism - unauthorised absence from work. = ( total absentees in a year / Avg no. of employees x No. of working days) x 100  Productivity Level - = Output / Input. Change in productivity affects no. of persons per unit of output.  Movement among Jobs - internal source of recruitment, selection and placement March 23, 2015 46Job Analyses & HR Planning
  47. 47. Forecasting HR AvailabilityForecasting HR Availability • Determining whether the firm will be able to secure employees with the necessary skills, and from what sources these individuals may be obtained. • Show whether the needed employees may be obtained from within the company, from outside the organization, or from a combination of the two sources. 47March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  48. 48. External Supply • External recruitment, selection & placement - Advertisements, Manpower Consultants, Campus Recruitment, Unsolicited Applications, Employee Referrals March 23, 2015 48Job Analyses & HR Planning
  49. 49. Determining Labor Supply Predicting Worker Flows and Availabilities Succession or Replacement Charts Who has been groomed/developed and is ready for promotion, NOW? Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) An employee database that can be searched when vacancies occur. Transition Matrices (Markov Analysis) A chart that lists job categories held in one period and shows the proportion of employees in each of the job categories in a future period. It answers two questions: 1. Where did people in each job category go? 2. Where did people now in each job category come from? Personnel / Yield Ratios How much work will it take to recruit one new accountant?March 23, 2015 49Job Analyses & HR Planning
  50. 50. Determining Labor Surplus or ShortageDetermining Labor Surplus or Shortage • Based on the forecasts for labor demand and supply, the planner can compare the figures to determine whether there will be a shortage or surplus of labor for each job category. • Determining expected shortages and surpluses allows the organization to plan how to address these challenges. March 23, 2015 50Job Analyses & HR Planning
  51. 51. Surplus of EmployeesSurplus of Employees • Restricted hiring: employees who leave are not replaced. • Reduced hours • Early retirement • Layoffs 51March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  52. 52. Shortage of Workers ForecastedShortage of Workers Forecasted • Creative recruiting • Compensation incentives: premium pay is one method • Training programs: prepare previously unemployable people for positions • Different selection standards: alter current criteria 52March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  53. 53. SUCCESSION PLANNING REPLACEMENT CHART FOR EXECUTIVE POSITIONS POSITION REPLACEMENT CARDS FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL POSITION - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - POSITION WESTERN DIVISION SALES MANAGER DANIEL BEALER Western Division Sales Mgr Outstanding Ready Now PRESENT PROMOTION POSSIBLE CANDIDATES CURRENT POSITION PERFORMANCE POTENTIAL SHARON GREEN Western Oregon Sales Manager Outstanding Ready Now GEORGE WEI N. California Sales Manager Outstanding Needs Training HARRY SHOW Idaho/Utah Sales Manager Satisfactory Needs Training TRAVIS WOOD Seattle Area Sales Manager Satisfactory Questionable - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - March 23, 2015 53Job Analyses & HR Planning
  54. 54. HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEMS (HRIS) PERSONAL DATA Age, Gender, Dependents, Marital status, etc EDUCATION & SKILLS Degrees earned, Licenses, Certifications Languages spoken, Specialty skills Ability/knowledge to operate specific machines/equipment/software JOB HISTORY Job Titles held, Location in Company, Time in each position, etc. Performance appraisals, Promotions received, Training & Development MEMBERSHIPS & ACHIEVEMENTS Professional Associations, Recognition and Notable accomplishments PREFERENCES & INTERESTS Career goals, Types of positions sought Geographic preferences CAPACITY FOR GROWTH Potential for advancement, upward mobility and growth in the company March 23, 2015 54Job Analyses & HR Planning
  55. 55. Job Analysis and the LawJob Analysis and the Law Fair Labor Standards Act: employees categorized as exempt or nonexempt. Equal Pay Act: similar pay must be provided if jobs are not substantially different as shown in job descriptions. Civil Rights Act: basis for adequate defenses against unfair discriminations charges in selection, promotion, and other areas of HR administration. Occupational Safety and Health Act: specify job elements that endanger health or are considered unsatisfactory or distasteful by most people. Disabilities Act: make reasonable accommodations for disabled workers. Empowerment Act: make accommodations for empowerment provisions made for women, minorities, Dalits, etc. 55March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  56. 56. HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM Goal: Integrate Core Processes into Seamless System 56 Input Data Types Job Analysis Recruitment Selection/Job Posting/ Employee Referral T&D Performance Appraisal Compensation Benefits Safety Health Labor Relations Employee Relations Output Data Uses* Employee Tracking Diversity Programs Hiring Decisions Training Programs/E- learning/Management Succession Compensation Programs Benefit Programs (e.g., prescription drug programs) Health Programs (e.g., Employee Assistance Programs) Bargaining Strategies Employee Services Organizational Strategic Plans Human Resource Management Plans Contribute Toward Achievement of: Human Resource Information System *Certain data are available to employees at work or at home. Examples: supervisors might access just- in-time training for conducting performance appraisal reviews. Operative employees might enter time and labor data. All employees may be able to review 401(k) balances, transfer funds, make benefit elections, set annual performance goals, update personnel data. March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  57. 57. Job DesignJob Design Process of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the methods used in performing these tasks, and how the job relates to other work in the organization. Job enrichment: Basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job, so as to provide greater challenge to the worker. Job enlargement: Changes in the scope of a job to provide greater variety to the worker. Reengineering: Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed. 57March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  58. 58. HR Recruitment and Selection ProcessHR Recruitment and Selection Process Activities, time involvement and cost incurred have direct correlation with relative degree of employee selection effectiveness. TimeTime 58 RejectReject Preliminary form screening Preliminary interview screening Formal application Written test/s Interview/s Reference check/s On the job testing Physical examination/s Employment offer on probation Job confirmation after probation Level of expensesLevel of expenses Level of employee selection effectiveness Level of employee selection effectiveness March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  59. 59. Sources of RecruitmentSources of Recruitment Sources within the companySources within the company 1. Company personnel referral system 2. Company executive referral system 3. Internal transfers 4. Seasonal employees 5. Company managed roster of probable job candidates 59 Sources beyond the companySources beyond the company 1.Direct unsolicited applications pool 2.Solicited applications 3.Employment agencies 4.Employees of customer organizations 5.Employees of competitor organizations 6.Referrals from executive club members 7.Educational institutions 8.Older or retired persons 9.Online sources Sources beyond the companySources beyond the company 1.Direct unsolicited applications pool 2.Solicited applications 3.Employment agencies 4.Employees of customer organizations 5.Employees of competitor organizations 6.Referrals from executive club members 7.Educational institutions 8.Older or retired persons 9.Online sources March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  60. 60. Selection ApproachesSelection Approaches 1. Resume screening and experience, skill competence and maturity analyses 2. Ability testing through formal examination systems 3. Subjective and objective observation of job candidates through – a. Group discussion b. Team work simulation c. Interview 4. Head-hunting of qualified job candidates from competing organizations 5. Standardized cut-off approaches 6. Multiple hurdle approaches 7. Classical validity and reliability testing 8. BCG modeling approach 9. Decision theory approach 10. Strategic contextualization approach 60March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  61. 61. Selection PredictorsSelection Predictors  HR planning  Forecasting of personnel demand and supply  Forecasting institutional growth and aligning HR requirement  Performing time series analyses of selection effectiveness of the past selection criteria in use  Organization’s policy on CSR, ethics, inclusion, empowerment, and diversity management 61March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning
  62. 62. Selection TechniquesSelection Techniques Formal vs. informal Solicited vs. unsolicited Internal vs. external Domestic vs. international Seasonal vs. temporary vs. permanent selection 62March 23, 2015 Job Analyses & HR Planning

×