3. Research is a systematic process utilizing scientific
method aimed at obtaining new knowledge that can be
used to solve a problem, or improve the existing status
of a system.
E.g. Helps in better understanding of disease Process.
New understanding of mechanism of action of a
9. • Health of the human beings is most important
• Interventions related to peoples health must be based on sound
principles and practices which must be continuously and critically
• Helps to perceive true dimensions of the Problem .
• Research provides answers to questions relevant to daily Living.
11. 1. Selecting the Research topic
2. Review of literature
3. Formulating the Research Problem (Introduction)–
a. Statement of the Problem
b. Relevance of the Problem
c. Field of Application
4.Statement of objective
20. “I CAN SEE FARTHER BECAUSE I STAND ON THE SHOULDERS OF MY
SIR ISAAC NEWTON
• To find out what work has been done by others in the field earlier.
• Any similar studies before
• What were the methods used
• What were the difficulties and at what stages ?
• How does your study differ from those ?
22. • If the same study is repeated you would like to confirm the results ?
• Do you expect different results because of Racial / Geographical
• Helps in comparing results
• Helps in finalizing your topic
23. How ?
• Through literature scan for related work
• Discussion with Experts in the specific area of Interest
• Internet( browsing in to research websites) , Books
Free of cost articles- Medline , BMJ
NLM Gateway – Web based system that lets users search
simultaneously in multiple retrieval system in U.S. National Library of
Title - Dosage effects of spinal manipulative therapy for chronic neck
Research question –
Research Question: In adults with chronic neck pain, what is the
minimum dose of manipulation necessary to produce a clinically
important improvement in neck pain compared to supervised exercise
at 6 weeks?
30. a. Statement of the Problem
b. Relevance of the Problem
c. Field of Application
32. 5. Research Methodology
• Most important section of the research paper as it explicitly sets out
is explanation of how the research activity was conducted.
a. Mention regarding research strategies /design
b. Research settings
c. Sampling Considerations
e. Description of Study Instruments used
f. Description of Data collection method
g. Description of Plans for Data Analysis and Interpretation of Results
h. Ethical Considerations
34. a. Selection of Research Design
• There are many Research Strategies or Study Design
• Appropriateness of a particular strategy will depend up on the
problem to be researched.
35. a. Observational Study Designs- Descriptive Study Design
b. Analytical Study Design
I . Cross Sectional Study
II. Case Control study
III. Cohort Study
C. Experimental Study Design
I. Randomized Control trial
II. Non Randomized Control trial
36. b. Selection of Research settings
Characteristics of study population
The Place of the study
Time of the study
37. c. Sampling Considerations
• Best method of studying a population is by complete enumeration of
all units but this is not possible.
• Hence adequate samples are drawn which are representatives of all
units in a population.
38. A Consideration of sampling technique deals with the following-
1. Determination of appropriate Sample Size –
It is the smallest number of units that is required to be studied for
getting statistically valid results which depends on the parameter
measured and the research design chosen.
2. Selection of appropriate sampling methods –
39. • For Quantitative data (at error)
Sample size(N) = (1.96)2 SD
SD= Standard deviation , L= Absolute error or Precision
For qualitative data
N= (1.96)2 Px(1-P)
40. Method of sampling or Sampling design .
1. Simple random sampling
2. Stratified random sampling
3. Systemic random sampling
4. Cluster random sampling
41. d. Selection of controls
• Controls increases the validity of results
• Better to be drawn from similar population groups
• Controls should be matched on as many confounding variables as
42. E. Description of study Instruments
1. Data collection Instruments
- Observation – a. unstructured b. Structured
- Interview – a. unstructured b. Structured
- Questionnaire and schedules
- Projective techniques
2.Supplimentary Diagnostic Instruments –
Hemoglobin meter, Infantometer, Microscope, ECG and X Ray
43. F. Description of Data Collection
How the community was approached
How investigators were selected
What were the training needs
How they were trained for interview
44. Pretest- for validating the study instrument and procedures and also
the Person .
• Clarity , Acceptability, Logical sequencing
Pilot Studies – Study of predetermined duration and on restricted
scale, to check for feasibility, effective and sufficiently efficient.
to test all the components are functioning smoothly.
45. G. Describing Data Analysis and Interpretation of
-Overall data processing plan and a statement weather
the data will be Processed by hand or computer
-The type of soft ware will be used for Data Analysis
- Choice of statistical methods to be employed.
46. H. Ethical considerations
• Informed consent
• Confidentiality ensured
• Complete the course of treatment, even the results are proved
• Ethical committee approval – Basic medical scientist, clinician , retired
Judge, social scientist, NGO Representatives , philosopher , ethisist.
• ICMR Ethical guidelines for Biomedical research on human subjects
should be followed.
48. • Observations should be initiated with observation of related
demographic pattern of the setting.
• Observations should be answers for the objectives of the study .
• Other observations can be related to primary objectives of the study.
49. • Data Analysis varies with each data
-Percentages, Proportions, Ratios , Rates
-Mean, Median, Mode
-Range, Mean deviation , Standard Deviation
-Choosing of significant test
Chi square test, Student T test
Tables ,Charts vary with type of data
50. Rules for framing tables
1. Should have a table NO.
2. Should have a title
3. Headings to the rows and columns should be present
4. Row total and Column total row should be present
5 . Analysis test ,if done should be present on separate column .
6. Percentages where ever possible should be calculated and should be
put in bracket
7. Inference below the table should be there.
52. 7. Discussion
• Each result /observation of our study should be compared with the
other study results and justification if possible should be written.
• References should be coded of other studies with whom the results
53. Citing References in the text
• References should be numbered numbers in box
parentheses e.g.  in the order of appearance in the
text as a superscript.
54. 8 &9. Conclusions and limitations of the study should be written.
Conclusions should be answers for the objectives of the study.
55. 10. How to write references while submitting
57. Bibliographic Elements
• Authors (use et al. after 6 authors, if there are more than six authors,
complete names should not be written. “et al” must be in italics)
• Article title (should be exact as existing)
• Journal name (should be in standard PubMed abbreviations, full
journal name should not be written)
• Page numbers (445-447 to be written as 445-47)
Singh JK, Bawa M, Kanojia RP, Ghai B, Menon P, Rao KL.
Idiopathic simultaneous intussusceptions in a neonate.
Pediatr Surg Int 2009;25:445-7.
59. Authors in correct sequence, and
names checked from PubMed
Correct title of
the article to
come after the
given in Pubmed
Year of the article
given after the
followed by the
Page no comes
last this should
not be written as
60. Punctuation Marks
Full stop after the last author
followed by space and then
the article title
Coma followed by space after each author
do not write and before the last author
Single space between the journal
abbreviation and the year, place no
other punctuation marks
Semicolon ; after
the year without any
Colon : after volume
no. without any space
Hyphen to separate the
Full stop at the
end of the ref.
Full stop followed by
61. Some randomly picked up references
Spot the wrong elements
• Haggstrom AN, Drolet BA, Baselga E, Chamlin SL et al.
Study of infantile hemangiomas: clinical
characteristics predicting complications and
treatment Pediatrics 2006, 118 :882-887
1. et al written after 4 authors it should have been written after 6 or more authors
2. Full stop after the end of the article title
3. 2006, 118 :882-887 this should have been written as 2006;118:882-7.
4. Correct ref would be
Haggstrom AN, Drolet BA, Baselga E, Chamlin SL, Garzon MC, Horii KA, et al. Study of infantile
hemangiomas: Clinical characteristics predicting complications and treatment. Pediatrics
62. Book Reference
• Chapter in a book
Miyano T, Kobayashi H, Chen SC. Long term results of biliary
atresia. In: Gupta DK, editor. Text Book of Neonatal Surgery,
1st edn. New Delhi: Modern Publishers; 2000. p. 288-91.
63. • Miyano T, Kobayashi H, Chen SC. Long term results of
biliary atresia. In: Gupta DK, editor. Text Book of
Neonatal Surgery, 1st ed. New Delhi: Modern
Publishers; 2000. p. 288-91.
Authors of the
Title of the chapter
Chief Editor of the
Name of the
publication Name of
Year and page no.
The punctuation marks are to followed as seen in this example