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Designing Collection Experiences: Discovery

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Explores the public library collection as a discovery tool. Browsing as a primary human search practice; weeding; other collection maintenance and merchandising techniques that improve the reader's experience while in the library and at the shelf.

Publicado en: Educación, Tecnología
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Designing Collection Experiences: Discovery

  1. 1. Designing Collection Experiences: 3. Discovery Roy Kenagy October 8, 2013 Waterloo Public Library
  2. 2. The Collection Conversation
  3. 3. Availability: Are the texts that the reader would prefer to select presented when the reader would prefer to select them?
  4. 4. The collection as artifact Frances Yates. The Art of Memory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966.
  5. 5. The collection as agent
  6. 6. Conversation Theory R. David Lankes, Joanne Silverstein, Scott Nicholson, and Todd Marshall. "Participatory Networks: The Library As Conversation." Information Research 12, no. 4 (October 2007): available at:
  7. 7. Lankes et. al.: “Roadmap to the participatory library”
  8. 8. The library as system Dee Andy Michel. "A File Structure Model of Library Search Behavior." Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1992.
  9. 9. What are some of the issues in thinking of Circ & Reference as “the public library system”?
  10. 10. "A reference transaction is an information contact that involves the knowledge, use, recommendation, interpretation, or instruction in the use of one or more information sources by a member of the library staff. Information sources include printed and non-printed materials, Internet, FirstSearch, or EBSCOhost, machine-readable databases, catalogs, and other records. Also, count referrals to other libraries, institutions, and persons both inside and outside the library. The request may come in person, by phone, fax, mail, electronic mail, or through live or networked electronic reference service from an adult, young adult, or child. " "Do not count directional transactions or questions of rules or policies. Examples of directional transactions are "Where are the children's books?" and "I'm looking for a book with call number 612.3." An example of a question of rules or policies is 'Are you open until 9:00 tonight?'“ ~Scott Dermont, quoting the rules on IOWALIB, Oct 4, 2013 “Reference” includes reader’s assistance.
  11. 11. For each reference transaction: Checkouts Visits Internet uses Mean, Iowa libraries 16 11 2 Charles City 23 15 4 Mean, Size E 23 21 4 Cedar Falls 13 8 2 Mean, Size G 18 11 2 Waterloo 6 3 2 Mean, Size H 12 6 1 Ratio of reference transactions to library activities Calculated with data found in Iowa Public Library Statistics, FY12 (2011-2012), edited by Scott Dermont. Des Moines, Iowa: Iowa Library Services, May 29, 2013.
  12. 12. For FY 2012 In Iowa, the ratio of reference transactions to library visits was 1:11.
  13. 13. How do we communicate with the hidden 90%? Kathy Sierra. "Presentation Skills Considered Harmful." Serious Pony (October 4, 2013): [blog]; available at 10/4/presentation-skills-considered-harmful.
  14. 14. “And if they’re my users, then this presentation is a user experience. And if it's a user experience, then what am I? Ah... now we’re at the place where stage fright starts to dissolve. Because if the presentation is a user experience, than I am just a UI [User Interface]. That’s it. I am a UI. Nothing more. And what’s a key attribute of a good UI? It disappears. It does not draw attention to itself. It enables the user experience, but is not itself the experience. And the moment I remember this is the moment I exhale and my pulse slows. Because I am not important. What is important is the experience they have. My job is to provide a context in which something happens for them.” Kathy Sierra, "Presentation Skills Considered Harmful."
  15. 15. The Implied Author Wayne C. Booth. The Rhetoric of Fiction. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.
  16. 16. The implied librarian
  17. 17. • Eliminate dumb contacts • Create engaging self service • Be proactive • Make yourself easy to contact • Own your actions across the library • Listen and act • Deliver great customer service experiences
  18. 18. The Story of The Modern Library Lady, as told by the late Thelma Grover. Jay Satterfield. The World's Best Books: Taste, Culture, and the Modern Library. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002.
  19. 19. • Staff aren’t the problem • Design systems so that heroes aren’t required • It’s difficult to find and pay people with both technical and people skills Frances Frei and Anne Morriss. Uncommon Service: How to Win by Putting Customers at the Core of Your Business. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2012.
  20. 20. This browsing life Why librarians need to take browsing more seriously.
  21. 21. Ronald E. Rice, Maureen McCreadie, and Shan-Ju L. Chang. Accessing and Browsing Information and Communication. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001.
  22. 22. Geoffrey O'Brien. The Browser's Ecstasy: A Meditation on Reading. Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 2000.
  23. 23. User [and librarian] experience Jakob Nielsen. "User Expertise Stagnates at Low Levels." NN/g Nielsen Norman Group: Evidence-Based User Experience Research, Training, and Consulting (September 28, 2013): [web site]; available at
  24. 24. Summary: Learning is hard work, and users don't want to do it; they don't explore the user interface [i.e., catalog] and don't know about most features. Nielsen, Jakob. "User Expertise Stagnates at Low Levels." NN/g Nielsen Norman Group: Evidence-Based User Experience Research, Training, and Consulting (September 28, 2013): [web site]; available at
  25. 25. How to co-exist with browsers (after Jakob Nielsen) • Fewer features • Visible features • Visible signifiers • Just-in-time learning • Teachable moments • Forgiveness • Low-commitment previews • Just plain usability
  26. 26. Brian C. O'Connor, Jud H. Copeland, and Jodi L. Kearns. Hunting and Gathering on the Information Savanna: Conversations on Modeling Human Search Abilities. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 2003.
  27. 27. Peter Pirolli. Information Foraging Theory: Adaptive Interaction With Information. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  28. 28. Language and representation
  29. 29. “Since most ordinary language is learned by demonstration rather than definition, and such demonstration requires immediate feedback, Information Retrieval systems must be built to facilitate the process of adaptive communication which typifies ordinary language usage.” David C. Blair. Language and Representation in Information Retrieval. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1990.
  30. 30. Robert K. Merton and Elinor G. Barber. Travels and Adventures of Serendipity: A Study in Historical Semantics and the Sociology of Science. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 2004.
  31. 31. Weeding
  32. 32. From the reader’s point of view, your collection consists of the texts you don’t weed. Minus the Collection in Use.
  33. 33. Weeding improves shelf availability.
  34. 34. Weeding creates opportunities.
  35. 35. MAÎTRE D (John Cleese): And finally, monsieur, a wafer-thin mint. MR. CREOSOTE (Terry Jones): Nah. MAÎTRE D: Oh, sir, it’s only a tiny, little, thin one.
  36. 36. The opportunity cost of just-in-case books Annual retail rent per square foot $15.53 (national average; 2nd quarter 2013) Volumes per Format sq. ft. 1 10 100 1,000 Adult hardback books 10 $1.55 $16 $155 $1,553 Paperbacks 20 $0.78 $8 $78 $777 Current periodicals (per issue) 1 $15.53 $155 $1,553 $15,530 Back periodicals (per volume) 10 $1.55 $16 $155 $1,553 Government documents 30 $0.52 $5 $52 $518 Audiotapes 30 $0.52 $5 $52 $518 Cake Pans 1 $15.53 $155 $1,553 $15,530 Compact discs 30 $0.52 $5 $52 $518 Children's books (42" shelving) 9 $1.73 $17 $173 $1,726 Children's books (66" shelving) 15 $1.04 $10 $104 $1,035 Children's picture books (42" shelving) 30 $0.52 $5 $52 $518 Annual cost by number of volumes
  37. 37. Volumes per Format sq. ft. 1,000 5,000 10,000 20,000 Adult hardback books 10 100 500 1,000 2,000 Paperbacks 20 50 250 500 1,000 Current periodicals (per issue) 1 1,000 5,000 10,000 20,000 Back periodicals (per volume) 10 100 500 1,000 2,000 Government documents 30 33 167 333 667 Audiotapes 30 33 167 333 667 Cake Pans 1 1,000 5,000 10,000 20,000 Compact discs 30 33 167 333 667 Children's books (42" shelving) 9 111 556 1,111 2,222 Children's books (66" shelving) 15 67 333 667 1,333 Children's picture books (42" shelving) 30 33 167 333 667 by Volumes Weeded Square Feet Released Space released by weeding
  38. 38. Benefits – space & otherwise
  39. 39. Collection Depreciation
  40. 40. Weeding Practices How do you weed? How would you like to weed?
  41. 41. Weed the entire collection once a year. That first year is a doozie.
  42. 42. Team Weeding
  43. 43. Determine rhizomes Cutoff standards vary widely among rhizomes.
  44. 44. Determine cutoff standards Demand, Currency, Condition
  45. 45. Demand cutoff standards Demand standards are based on the same data as duplication standards.
  46. 46. Slote, Stanley J. Weeding Library Collections: Library Weeding Methods. 4th ed. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1997.
  47. 47. Time Since Last Arrival Days/Months since last arrival Duplicate? Weed?
  48. 48. Shelf Time Studies • Weeding cutoff dates • Size of active/inactive collections
  49. 49. Shelf Time exercise: answers
  50. 50. Currency CREW standards and/or 1½ times median age of the Collection in Use.
  51. 51. CREW: A Weeding Manual for Modern Libraries, ed. Jeanette Larson. Revised and updated ed. Austin, Tex.: Texas State Library, 2012; available at https://www.tsl.state.tx. us/ld/pubs/crew/index. html.
  52. 52. Rod Pierce. "Definition of Median" Math Is Fun. Ed. Rod Pierce. Aug 23, 2013.
  53. 53. Using median age to estimate currency cutoff age 1 ½ times the median age of the collection in use
  54. 54. Condition Start with a sample of copies with 50 or more circulations, and work in either direction depending on the result.
  55. 55. Create pick list(s)
  56. 56. Pick list report(s) • Copies that haven’t circulated in X number of months [Demand cutoff] • Copies that are older than X [Currency cutoff] • Copies that have circulated more than X times [Condition cutoff] Create a combined list if possible
  57. 57. Assemble the worst-case collection Have an aide or volunteer pull the pick list and shelve the copies in shelf list order in a staff work area.
  58. 58. Selector Sort The selector responsible for the rhizome reviews and physically separates the worst-case copies into 4 ranges.
  59. 59. • Withdraw • Replacement • Further research • Free keepers
  60. 60. Team Review Other staff review the selector’s decisions and comment on titles they would treat differently.
  61. 61. Selector Followup Final disposition of the copies is completed by the selector responsible for the rhizome.
  62. 62. Evaluation Review cutoff standards annually. Summarize findings to help in estimating replacement budgets and selection decisions.
  63. 63. Annual-weeding-as-inventory
  64. 64. Missing Items Inventory • Weeding • Circulation • Shelf checks • Reference Inventory • High-Loss Tracking
  65. 65. Warehouse or Savanna?
  66. 66. Classification
  67. 67. BISAC Subject Classification Book Industry Standards and Communication
  68. 68. anythink: Rangeview Library District, Adams County, Colorado
  69. 69. Merchandising
  70. 70. Paco Underhill. Why We Buy: The Science of Shopping— Updated and Revised for the Internet, the Global Consumer, and Beyond. Rev. ed. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009.
  71. 71. ServiceScapes: The Concept of Place in Contemporary Markets, ed. John F. Sherry, Jr. Lincolnwood, Ill.: NTC Business Books, 1998.
  72. 72. Jeannette Woodward. Creating the Customer- Driven Library: Building on the Bookstore Model. Chicago: American Library Association, 2004.
  73. 73. Stephanie Weaver. Creating Great Visitor Experiences: A Guide for Museums, Parks, Zoos, Gardens, and Libraries. Walnut Creek, Calif.: Left Coast Press, 2007.
  74. 74. Mary Anne Nichols. Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians, edited by C. Allen Nichols and Mary Anne Nichols. Greenwood Village, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 2002.
  75. 75. Stack Management
  76. 76. William J. Hubbard. Stack Management: A Practical Guide to Shelving and Maintaining Library Collections. Chicago: American Library Association, 1981.
  77. 77. Richard Joseph Hyman. Shelf Access in Libraries. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982.
  78. 78. Reader’s Assistance A tale of three service desks.
  79. 79. Programming Where implied librarians are sometimes ambushed.
  80. 80. Electronic Discovery In search of a secure recommender system.
  81. 81. Ray Oldenburg. The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts and How They Get You Through the Day. 2nd ed. New York: Marlowe, 1997.
  82. 82. The collection conversation