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A number of persons and organizations helped me to prepare this study report. All of them
have equally contributed their suggestions and help to the whole life cycle of this report.
My special and heartiest gratitude goes to my supervisor Mr. Umesh Acharya, Lecturer at
the Central Department of Rural Development for his regular interest, valuable guidance,
encouragement, comments and suggestions for the preparation of this project report
instead of his valuable business.
I am equally indebted to Dr. Pradeep Kumar Khadka, Professor and Head of the Central
Department of Rural Development and other respectable teachers for their co-operation.
This study would not have been possible without their incentives for researcher.
It is my opportunity to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Santosh Kumar Dahal, the
Secretary of Chandragadhi VDC and other staff members of the office for providing me
with the data needed for this study.
On this occasion, I should remember my friends Sushil Bhattarai, Sudhir Bhattarai, Padam
Prasad Parajuli, Bishal Adhikari, Rabi Shah and Miss Shihomi Sakamoto for their friendly
cooperation in the field visit and at the time of data processing.
Also I would like to express my sincere thanks to the Satar community; the Satar People
and the children.
Last but not least, I have to express my sincere gratitude to my revered parents, Brother
Rajeev Koirala and Sisters Ranjeeta Koirala and Rejina Koirala who have supported me
throughout the whole period of the study.
July 2005 Rajesh Koirala
LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Title Page No.
1 Sampled Households 15
2 Types of Soil 17
3 Distribution of Population on the Basis of Ethnic Group 18
4 Population by Mother Tongue for Chandragadhi VDC 18
5 Age and Sex Structure of the Respondents 22
6 Educational Attainment of the Respondents 23
7 Educational Attainments of the Respondent's Children 23
8 Family Types of the Respondents 24
9 Occupation of the Respondents 27
10 Size of Landholding of the Respondents 28
11 Landless Respondents and their Settlement 28
12 Annual Income of the Respondents 29
13 Number of Respondents who Took Loan 30
14 Number of Livestock Among all Respondents 30
15 Number of Respondents Having Livestock 31
16 Child Name According to the Specific Day of the Birth 36
17 Marriage Preferred by the Respondents 37
18 Effects of Other Culture in their Culture 44
18.1 Affected from Other Particular Cultures 45
19 Effects of Modern Dances and Songs 45
LIST OF MAPS
Map No. Title Page No.
1 Map of Jhapa District 20
2 Map of Chandragadhi VDC 21
CBS Central Bureau of Statistics
DDC District Development Committee
HMG His Majesty's Government
T.U. Tribhuvan University
VDC Village Development Committee
Nepal is a meeting ground for different people and culture situated at the
natural boundary and the watershed that’s runs through the middle of the
largest continent in the world. Nepalese society is a unique example of the
mixture of different caste and ethnic groups living together. Social structure of
Nepal is very complex, which has been highlighted by various foreign and
Nepalese scholars in their writings. Unity in diversity is the major characteristic
of Nepalese national culture. Among the different ethnic groups, Satar is one of
the indigenous ethnic groups having their unique culture, traditions and rituals.
The study “Socio-Economic Status of Satars” has been conducted at
Chandragadhi VDC of Jhapa District with a general objective to analyze the
socio-economic status of the Satars of the area. The objectives of the study
were to trace out the cultural status of the Satars of the study area, to find out
the social condition of the Satars and to assess the impact of other cultures on
their culture. Primary and secondary data were used to collect the information
and tools like observations, formal and non formal discussions, interviews were
held to collect other necessary information. Descriptive and analytical research
designs have been followed to describe and examine the findings of the study.
Out of total 77 households of Chandragadhi VDC, fifty household members of
the Satars were taken as sample following simple random sampling method.
The study shows that the Satars are one of the indigenous ethnic groups of the
study area following their own sorts of traditions and culture. They are culturally
rich, simple and gentle but economically poor. They basically depend upon the
wage and agricultural labor for their livelihood. Their life cycle ceremonies are
very interesting and can attract national as well as foreign scholars and
researchers. Literacy rate among them is not encouraging. Hardly few people
are literate. However, they are still solving the local cases themselves rather
than to visit police stations and courts. Modernization has changed their
traditional social organizations, such as marriage, family kinship, religion,
village polity, dance, songs, and dress etc. and they have started to follow
modern types of culture. Technological advancements have not brought
significant changes among them.
Based upon the findings, the paper suggests some strategies in order to
improve their socio-economic condition. These include mainly introducing
social security by government, creating employment opportunities and
introducing formal and non formal education by government and other
concerned organizations to enhance their educational as well as awareness