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Make Your Content Nimble - Confab

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This is a talk I gave at Confab 2011 about some metadata standards that will help make your content nimble. This is a follow up to the Nimble report (

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Make Your Content Nimble - Confab

  1. 1. Make Your Content NimbleCONFAB – The Content Strategy ConferenceMay 10, 2011Rachel Lovinger@rlovinger#NimbleCS
  2. 2. ABOUT ME: RACHEL LOVINGER 2• Associate Experience Director, Content Strategy, Razorfish NYC• Co-editor of scatter/gather, a content strategy blog:• Author of Nimble: A Razorfish Report on Publishing in the Digital Age (June 2010) ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Photo by Rohanna Mertens
  3. 3. NIMBLE: A REPORT ON PUBLISHING IN THE DIGITAL AGE 3 • Nimble is available at: • On Twitter: @NimbleRF ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Illustrations by Fogelson-Lubliner
  5. 5. IF CONTENT IS NIMBLE 5Nimble content can:• Travel Freely• Retain Context & Meaning• Create New Products ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Illustration by Fogelson-Lubliner
  6. 6. TRAVEL FREELY 6• Socially-enabled• Mobile-friendly• On Demand Photo by Rachel Lovinger, Drawing by Mathieu Plourde
  7. 7. RETAIN CONTEXT & MEANING 7• Source• Usage• Relationships ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Image © 2011, Inc.
  8. 8. CREATE NEW PRODUCTS 8• Reusable• Engaging• Profitable• Time to Market ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Photo by Rishi Menon Photo by Christian Van Der Henst S.
  9. 9. Qualities of Nimble ContentCONTENT MUST BE…
  10. 10. WELL STRUCTUREDPhoto by Travis Nep Smith
  11. 11. WELL DEFINEDPhoto by Matt M
  12. 12. WELL DESCRIBEDPhoto by zerothousand
  14. 14. 14 TOOLS PROCESSES STANDARDS©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. WHY STANDARDS? 15Nimble = Content thatmachines can understandStandards make it possibleWhat standard metadataframeworks and vocabulariesare available to augmentcontent and help othersystems make better use of it? ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Photo by Steve Jurvetson, `
  16. 16. ICEBERG TIPSPhoto by Nick Russill
  17. 17. 17 * TLA = Three Letter Acronym©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. How to make contentWELL STRUCTURED
  19. 19. WELL STRUCTURED 19• Information separated from presentation• Segmented into usable bits Title: Ta-dah! Description: were talking a serious jello mold here. Tags: jello, layers, delicious Appears in: Dinner (set) Created by: Dan DeLuca Taken on: February 14, 2010 Taken with: Fujifilm FinePix F70EXR Usage Rights: CC-BY Some rights reserved Source URL: ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Photo by Dan DeLuca `
  20. 20. HTML5 20Simplifies much of the markup from previous versions of HTML, whileproviding the ability to add more context and meaning• For example: <link rel="alternate" type="application/atom+xml" title="My Weblog feed" href="/feed/" />This makes it possible to add more information about what is beinglinked to, its format, and what purpose it serves ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Example from Dive Into HTML5 by Mark Pilgrim `
  21. 21. HTML5 21New semantic tags in HTML5 include: <section> <header> <nav> <footer> <article> <time> <aside> <mark> <hgroup>For more information: Mark Pilgrim’s Dive Into HTML5 ( ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. RDF 22RDF = Resource Description FrameworkPurpose: To provide a structure (aka framework) for describingidentified things (aka resources)Composed of three basic elements • Resources – the things being described • Properties – the relationships between things • Classes – the buckets used to group the things ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. RDF 23The elements are combined to make simple statements called TriplesExamples:• Men In Black is a Movie• Will Smith is an Actor• Men In Black stars Will Smith Movie Actor typeOf typeOf Men In Black hasStar Will Smith <MenInBlack> <hasStar> <WillSmith> ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. RDFA 24RDFa = RDF in attributesPurpose: Allows RDF attributes and properties to be included inXHTML and HTML documents. <div>xmlns:dc=""> <div <h2 property="dc:title">The trouble with Bob</h2> <h2>The trouble with Bob</h2> <h3 property="dc:creator">Alice</h3> <h3>Alice</h3> … </div>• For more information see: ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. OWL 25OWL = Web Ontology LanguagePurpose: To develop ontologies that arecompatible with the World Wide Web.• Based on the basic elements of RDF• Adds more vocabulary for describing properties and classes. • Relationships between classes (ex: disjointWith) • Equality (ex: sameAs) • Richer properties (ex: symmetrical)• For more information see: ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Artwork by Ernest H. Shepard, from writings by A. A. Milne
  26. 26. OWL 26Allows systems to express and make sense of first order logic.1. All men are mortal2. Socrates is a man3. Therefore, Socrates is mortal ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. The Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David, photo by Wally Gobetz
  27. 27. SKOS 27SKOS = Simple Knowledge Organization SystemPurpose: Designed specifically to express information that’s morehierarchical.• Also based on the basic elements of RDF• Adds more vocabulary for describing: • Broader terms • Narrower terms • Preferred terms • Other thesaurus-like relationships ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Illustration by Peter Morville, as seen in Ambient Findability (O’Reilly Media).
  28. 28. CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 28Separate the information fromthe presentation ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. STRUCTURAL METADATA 29• Defines the types of content and the attributes of each type.• Answers the question “What constitutes a piece of content?”• Example: Photo Title: Ta-dah! Description: were talking a serious jello mold here. Tags: jello, layers, delicious Appears in: Dinner (set) Created by: Dan DeLuca Taken on: February 14, 2010 Taken with: Fujifilm FinePix F70EXR Usage Rights: CC-BY Some rights reserved Source URL: ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Photo by Dan DeLuca `
  30. 30. CREATING STRUCTURAL METADATA 301. Determine the content types. • Which types of content are different enough that they might warrant a unique structure and/or layout? • For example, an article, quiz, slideshow, recipe and event are all fairly distinct. ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. © A List Apart, Jeff Baker and Alex Graham, Washington Post, Food Network, and Barnes & Noble
  31. 31. CREATING STRUCTURAL METADATA 312. Determine the elements that make up each type. • Figure out the separate elements, or attributes, that might be in each one. • Think about how each segment of information will be used. • Example: Event Event Name Date & Time Location ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. CREATING STRUCTURAL METADATA 323. Determine any relationships between content types. • Content items can be linked or embedded within another item. • For example, the book reading event links to a book page and an author page. Book Page Author Page ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. CONTENT MODEL 33Structural Metadata is expressed in the form of a Content Model.Step 1:Identify the Content Types ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. CONTENT MODEL 34Step 2: Identify the Attributes of each Content TypeThe Content Model informs the definition of the CMS and the designand functionality of the pages of the site. ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. How to make contentWELL DEFINED
  36. 36. WELL DEFINED 36These separate bits of information need to be exposed to variousdelivery platforms in a meaningful way. <h2>This is my story</h2> <i>by Joanne Smith</i> is not as informative as <title>This is my story</title> <author>Joanne Smith</author> ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. YES, STANDARDS! 37Content needs to be exposedusing structures that meansomething to the machines(platforms, systems, devices,channels) that receive it. ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Photo by Steve Jurvetson, `
  38. 38. DUBLIN CORE METADATA INITIATIVE 38Purpose: A metadata framework for describing any type of contentExample attributes:• Name: The unique term that identifies the item• Label: The human-readable label assigned to the term• Definition: A description of the term.Example properties:• abstract: A summary of the item• audience: The intended audience for the item• creator: A person, organization or service responsible for creating the item• license: Indicates usage rights for the item• subject: The topic of the item• For more information see: ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  39. 39. METADATA STANDARDS FOR JOURNALISM 39PRISM = Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata• Partially based on Dublin Core• Includes additional elements such as: • copyright, edition, embargoDate, genre, publicationDate, sectionNewsML is a standard for conveying news, metadata about news, andmanagement metadata for news• Includes elements such as: • creditline, infoSource, personDetails, slugline• Adds other properties that convey how the news content should be handled in various situationsrNews is a proposed standard for using RDFa in news content• Includes classes of elements such as: • Tag, Location, Person, Organization, Headline, Article, Media ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  40. 40. METADATA STANDARDS FOR IMAGES 40EXIF = Exchangeable Image File Format• Based on TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) attributes• Metadata is embedded in images by most digital cameras• Includes elements such as: • Image height & width, orientation, camera make & model, date taken, aperture, flash, ISO speed, exposure time, white balance, digital zoom ratio, saturationXMP = Extensible Metadata Platform• Developed by Adobe, allows people and tools to embed more metadata, which can then be read by other publishing systems• Incorporated into other standards initiatives, such as Dublin Core, PRISM, Creative Commons, W3C, AdsML, etc.• Includes all DCMI elements, plus others such as: • ModifyDate, Rating, CreatorTool, DerivedFrom, and Rights Managment ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  41. 41. METADATA STANDARDS FOR VIDEOS 41MPEG-7 is a standard from the Moving Picture Experts Group• Used to add descriptive metadata to audio and visual content• Intended to be interpretable by a broad a set of tools and systems• Includes elements such as:• MediaFormat, MediaQuality, Classification, Related Material, Rights, Segment, UserInteraction, Color Descriptors, Texture Descriptors, Shape Descriptors, Motion Descriptors, Localization, Face RecognitionMedia RSS is an RSS module that can allows for more detailedinformation about media content• Created by Yahoo!, transitioning to the RSS Advisory Board• Includes elements such as:• URL, bitrate, channels, duration, rating, keywords, thumbnail, player, credit, copyright, community, price, location, subTitle ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  42. 42. METADATA STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL CONNECTIONS 42FOAF = Friend of a Friend• Describes people, their connections, and the things they create• Incorporated into many other standard vocabularies & tools• Includes elements such as: • Agent, Person, Group, Project, age, familyName, givenName, knows, interest, isPrimaryTopicOf, myersBriggs, publications, openID, workplaceHomepageSIOC = Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities• Integrates personal profile and social networking information• Usually used in conjunction with FOAF• Includes elements such as: • Community, Forum, Item, Post, Role, Thread, UserAccount, about, creator_of, follows, last_activity_date, member_of, related_to, subscriber_of ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  43. 43. METADATA STANDARDS FOR PRODUCTS 43Good Relations is “The Web Ontology for E-commerce”• Embeds product, price, and company data into web pages• Officially recommended and supported by Google• Includes elements such as: • BusinessEntity, Offering, acceptedPaymentMethods, availabilityEnds, category, color, condition, description, eligibleRegions, hasManufacturer, isSimilarTo• For more information:GoodRelations Quickstart GuidePLEASE NOTE: You will NOT findmore information on this at ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  44. 44. A FEW MORE POINTS 44• Additional standards will continue to be developed.• We need content management tools that will help retain, create, and surface (i.e. publish) this metadata with the content.• It is not trivial to create this metadata. • Retain! • Crowdsource! • Share! ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  45. 45. How to make contentWELL DESCRIBED
  46. 46. WELL DESCRIBED 46These meaningful structures need to be filled in with information thatgives the content context and meaning and helps platforms andsystems understand how to use it.• Examples: Title: Ta-dah! Description: were talking a serious jello mold here. Tags: jello, layers, delicious Appears in: Dinner (set) Created by: Dan DeLuca Taken on: February 14, 2010 Taken with: Fujifilm FinePix F70EXR Usage Rights: CC-BY Some rights reserved Source URL: ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Photo by Dan DeLuca `
  47. 47. WELL DESCRIBED 47• Subjects, people, places, events, and products• Where did the content come from?• Are there restrictions on how it can be used?• Is the content time-sensitive or evergreen?• Is the content part of a larger story or set of content, without which it doesn’t make as much sense?• What information is included when people share the content via social media? ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  48. 48. VOCABULARIES 48• Taxonomy – A hierarchical classification system containing one or more dimensions• Folksonomy – A user-generated tagging system, where new terms can be added on an as-needed basis• Ontology – Includes business rules that applies additional logic to the organization and properties of the termsBottom Line: The values in those metadata fields need to be fill in.• Some, like title and abstract, will need to be open data.• But others, like keywords, industries, people, geography, languages, and product names should be standardized. ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  49. 49. LINKED OPEN DATA – FEBRUARY 2008 49Diagram by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch
  50. 50. LINKED OPEN DATA – SEPTEMBER 2010 50Diagram by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch
  51. 51. MACHINE-ASSISTED TAGGING 51• Extracts concepts on a page• Suggests categorized terms• Content producer approves or rejects each suggested term ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved. Screenshot from Joe Devon’s `
  52. 52. MANAGE CONTENT WITH METADATA 52Drupal 7• Open source CMS• Native support for semantic structures RDF & RDFa ©2011 Razorfish. All rights reserved.
  53. 53. 53 CONCLUSION• Nimble content must be in a CMS, with an adaptable content model.• Use industry standard metadata frameworks and rich descriptive metadata.• Retain and use the metadata you have.• Create metadata, or use open data• Share your created data with others!