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  1. 1. Social Deviance (Theories of Deviance)
  2. 2. Overview of today’s review class: ⚫What is social deviance? ⚫Who are to be considered as deviants? ⚫What are the causations of such behavior based on theories? ⚫How do we critique what we learn?
  3. 3. Deviant – is the person involved in deviance Deviant behavior – behavior which does not conform to social expectation. - behavior that is regarded as wrongdoings that generate negative reactions in persons who witness or hear about it. Social Deviance /Deviance – disapproved behavior and traits, characteristics or conditions that generate a similar condemnatory, rejection reaction in others. - is an action that is likely to generate, or has generated reactions to the actor by or from certain audiences. What is social deviance?
  4. 4. Some things/types of person regarded as deviant? Homosexuals, prostitute/prostituted women, drug addicts, radicals, criminals, liars, atheists, card players, bearded men, perverts, obesity, etc.
  5. 5. Important Ideas to consider in Deviance ⚫An act can be criminal and deviant ⚫An act can be deviant but not criminal. ⚫behavior or conditions that harm others ⚫Something offends God, or is a violation of certain religious principles that makes it deviant.
  6. 6. 2 Important Ideas to consider in Deviance ⚫An act can be criminal and deviant ⚫An act can be deviant but not criminal.
  7. 7. Characteristics of Deviance ⚫Deviance is Universal, but there are no universal forms or deviance. ⚫Deviance is a social definition. It is not a quality of the act; it is how we define it. It is not the act; it is how we label it. ⚫Social groups make rules and enforce them, rules are socially constructed, and social groups utilize social control mechanism to ensure they are adhered to. ⚫Deviance is contextual.
  8. 8. Five Naïve, Misleading Definitions of Deviance • Absolutist Definition • Statistical Definition • Social and Individual Harm • An act’s criminal • Positive deviance
  9. 9. Two Fruitful definitions of Deviance •The Normative Definition- deviance can take place in secret; an act or conditions that nobody knows about except the violator. This definition presumes that this observers capable of seeing any and all actions, even if they are secret, and making accurate judgment about their deviant status in a given society.
  10. 10. The Reactive Definitions. It argues that the key characteristics of deviance may be found in actual, concrete instances of a negative reaction to behavior. To qualify as deviance, the action must be observed and generate condemnation or punishment for the actor or individual.
  11. 11. 2 Fundamental Approaches to the Explanation of Deviance
  12. 12. 1.) The cause is within the deviant; the goal was to discover individual characteristics contributing to becoming involved in deviant behavior. In short, this first approach concerned explaining the deviant by means of biological and psychological positivism. 2.) The other approach stressed the importance of social factors as a cause of deviance. The goal was to explain both the existence of deviant behaviors and its distribution in society.
  13. 13. Theories of Social Deviance
  14. 14. 1.) Rational Choice Theory/ Free Will Causation According to Beccaria, humans are fundamentally rational and hedonistic. They possess free will and make deliberate decisions to behave based upon a calculation of the pain and pleasure involved. ⚫ Classical ⚫ Neo Classical
  15. 15. 2.) Heredity and Mental Deficiencies ⚫ Heredity concerns the process of passing characteristics from one generation to another: Mental deficiencies are specific characteristics that may or may not be seen by the theorists as inherited. ⚫Theorist believed in this idea that criminality was inherited and also the mental defectiveness which played an important role in criminal behavior.
  16. 16. 3.) SOMATOLOGY ⚫refers to the science of classifying human physical characteristics by examining the relationship between body type or physique and particular patterns of mental and behavioral characteristics or temperaments.
  17. 17. Endomorphic Body Type: ⚫ soft body ⚫ underdeveloped muscles ⚫ round shaped ⚫ over-developed digestive system Associated personality traits: ⚫ love of food ⚫ tolerant ⚫ love of comfort ⚫ sociable ⚫ good humored ⚫ relaxed ⚫ need for affection
  18. 18. Mesomorphic Body Type: ⚫ hard, muscular body ⚫ overly mature appearance ⚫ rectangular shaped ⚫ thick skin ⚫ upright posture Associated personality traits: ⚫ adventurous ⚫ desire for power and dominance ⚫ courageous ⚫ indifference to what others think or want ⚫ assertive, bold ⚫ zest for physical activity ⚫ competitive ⚫ love of risk and chance
  19. 19. Ectomorphic Body Type: ⚫ thin ⚫ flat chest ⚫ delicate build ⚫ young appearance ⚫ tall ⚫ lightly muscled ⚫ stoop-shouldered ⚫ large brain Associated personality traits: ⚫ self-conscious ⚫ preference for privacy ⚫ introverted ⚫ socially anxious ⚫ artistic ⚫ mentally intense ⚫ emotionally restrained
  20. 20. 4.) XYY CHROMOSOMES SYNDROME ⚫46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs – human cells each parents having donated one of each pair. ⚫Every normal cell in a woman’s body contains two X chromosomes, and each cell in a male has one X and one Y.
  21. 21. CONFLICT THEORY Theories about Power & Inequality, Coercion & Change
  22. 22. Based on the ideas that… ⚫Coercion & power determine the social order ⚫Groups struggle to maintain power ⚫One group’s ability to control another group leads to conflict ⚫All societies have conflict ⚫Conflict produces social change
  23. 23. What is conflict? ⚫“Conflict is a struggle ⚫ between individuals or collectivities ⚫ over values or ⚫ claims to status, power, & scarce resources ⚫in which the aims of the conflicting parties are ⚫ to assert their values or claims over those of others” Goodhand & Hulme (1999), p. 14
  24. 24. A value is___________________?
  25. 25. Example of what is/are valuable/s? ___, ___, _____, _____, ____, ____, _____, _____, ______, ______, ______?
  26. 26. Conflict theories assert that… All problems are created by disparities between groups or classes & how they struggle with each other for dignity & the necessities of life where justiceis served.
  27. 27. What is Social Justice? ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ___________.
  28. 28. What is Social Justice? Principles of Justice •
  29. 29. What is Social Justice? Theories of Justice 1.) Utilitarian 2.) Egalitarian 3.) Libertarian 4.) Communitarian
  30. 30. Stages of Conflict by Eric Brahm ; 2003 What is your critic?
  31. 31. But first, what is “social class”? ⚫CLASS ⚫ a group of people who share the same social status ⚫ status may be due to education, family, occupation, gender, income, ethnicity, religion ⚫CLASS STRUCTURE ⚫ social hierarchy of classes in a society from high to low ⚫ stratification of inequality ⚫ status based on perceived power in society ⚫ ex: economic, physical, familial, political, or religious power ⚫ “poverty” class ⚫ the group of people with the least economic status or power
  32. 32. Some societies & cultures are more “stratified” than others…have more clearly defined groups or classes
  33. 33. The origins of conflict theory ⚫Developed from ideas of Karl Marx (1818-83) & Frederick Engels (1820-95) in Europe ⚫They believed: ⚫ Society is a class struggle between the workers (wage earners) & the capitalists (the owners) ⚫ Capitalists exploit the workers ⚫ Conflict is primarily economic
  34. 34. Based on their observations of society, they proposed… ⚫CONFLICT is… ⚫ Inevitable—it is bound to happen ⚫ Continual—it will always happen ⚫ Due to class differences—it results from society’s inequality & class struggles, especially about production ⚫TRUTH can be known… ⚫ By understanding how social forces work ⚫ By recognizing contradictions within social forces & class struggles in society
  35. 35. Marx proposed that… ⚫The religious, political, & economic ideas of the wealthy reinforce the “status quo” ⚫ It is in the best interest of the class in power to maintain the status quo ⚫People not in power should “unite” in their struggle against the ruling class, creating a revolution
  36. 36. Class & bureaucracy ⚫Max Weber (1864-1920), father of modern sociology, expanded views about class & power ⚫Weber believed most power comes from state bureaucracies & those who govern ⚫ Bureaucracies control & dominate society ⚫ Bureaucracies have top-down organizations ⚫ Managers & workers are in conflict with those who govern
  37. 37. Weber’s view of “class” ⚫Defined class as a group of people that share the same life status or situation ⚫they have in common the same “life chances”
  38. 38. Power comes from the latin word “potere” which means “ to be able to”. Weber’s definition of “power” ⚫Power is the chance to realize one’s will or control over the resistance of others ⚫Bureaucratic control, social status, & political power also depend on class ⚫But ultimately, social class is determined by economic power
  39. 39. What does this mean? ⚫ The degree that group A has power over group B depends on the degree to which A has control over B’s resources ⚫ Dependency includes both the “availability” of resources & the “motivational investment” of the groups involved ⚫ If resources are available from other sources, group A does not have as much power over group B
  40. 40. Types of Power ( Daft, 2004; Johns, 1996) ⚫Legitimate/ positional power ⚫Reward power ⚫Coercive power ⚫Referent power ⚫Expert power
  41. 41. More thoughts about “power” ⚫Social exchange theorists proposed that power can only be understood in terms of social relationships ⚫Power is not an attribute of an individual actor ⚫Power is related to the “mutual dependency” in the relationship of people
  42. 42. The Social Construction of Difference: Defining Self & Others
  43. 43. Categories of Differences: Key Terminology ❖ Social Group: “A group of people who share a range of physical, cultural, and/or social characteristics within one of the categories of social identity (race, ethnicity, immigrant status, religion/spirituality, sex and gender, sexual orientation, age, socio-economic status).” ❖ Master Status: “A status (based on one’s social group) that has a profound affect on one’s life; that dominates or overwhelms the other statuses one occupies.” What do you think are the most influential “master statuses” in Mindanao and in the larger Philippines?
  44. 44. Social Group Identities ❖ Race ❖ Ethnicity ❖ Immigration Status ❖ Religion/Spirituality ❖ Sex/Gender ❖ Sexual Orientation ❖ Disability/Ability ❖ Age ❖ Socio-economic Class ❖ Other Social Group Identities in Mindanao?
  45. 45. Dyadic or Small Group Exercise (Handouts)
  46. 46. 5 Steps in Defining Difference (Social Construction of Difference) Naming ↓ Aggregating ↓ Dichotomizing ↓ Attributing Meaning to Difference ↙ ↘ “The Norm” “The Other”
  47. 47. ❖ “The Norm” “A standard of rightness and often righteousness wherein all others are judged in relation to it.” The Norm includes those who have ability to exert power and control (may not be numerical majority; example of nonwhites in South Africa; women). ❖ “The Other” “Those who fall outside ‘The Norm,’ yet who are defined in relation to it.” The Other are often seen as “abnormal,” “inferior,” “needing help,” etc., and are often marginalized and not able to exert power and control (may not be the numerical minority).
  48. 48. One’s master status affects major life opportunities and limits. No one who is relegated to an “outgroup” can ignore that fact. “One may overcome it, compensate for it, deny it, fight or rebel against it, or accept it – but a reaction to this reality is unavoidable.”
  49. 49. Responding to Triggers ❖A trigger is something that an individual says or does, which makes us as members of different social groups feel diminished, offended, threatened, stereotyped, discounted, or attacked. We can also be triggered by an organizational or social policy or practice. ❖Triggers do not necessarily threaten our physical safety, but we often feel psycho- logically threatened. We can also be triggered on behalf of another social group - although we may not feel personally threatened, our sense of social justice feels violated.
  50. 50. ❖ Triggers cause an emotional response. These emotions can include hurt, confusion, anger, fear, surprise, or embarrassment. ❖ We respond to triggers in a variety of ways, some helpful and others not. Some of these responses are effective and some not. What responses we choose depend on our own inner resources and the dynamics of the situation. ❖ Our goal in developing a full repertoire of responses to triggers is to take care of ourselves and then decide how to respond most effectively. The following list of possible responses to triggers is not intended to be all- inclusive and is in no order of preference.
  51. 51. ❖Leave: We physically remove ourselves from the triggering situation. ❖Avoidance: We avoid future encounters with and withdraw emotionally from people or situations that trigger us. ❖Silence: We do not respond to the triggering situation though we feel upset by it. We endure it without saying or doing anything. ❖Release: We notice the trigger, but do not take it in. We choose to let it go.
  52. 52. ❖Confusion: We feel upset but are not clear about why we feel that way. We know we feel angry, hurt, or offended. We just don’t know what to say or do about it. ❖Shock: We are caught off guard, unprepared to be triggered by this person or situation and have a difficult time responding. ❖Surprise: We respond to the trigger in an unexpected way. For example, we react with constructive humor that names the trigger and makes people laugh. ❖Attack: We respond with an intention to hurt whoever has triggered us.
  53. 53. ❖Internalization: We take in the content of the trigger. We believe it to be true. ❖Rationalization: We convince ourselves that we misinterpreted the trigger, that the intention was not to hurt us, or that we are overreacting so that we can avoid saying. ❖Misinterpretation: We are feeling on guard and expect to be triggered, so that we misinterpret something someone says and are triggered by our misinterpretation, rather than by what was actually said. ❖Name: We identify what is upsetting us to the triggering person or organization.
  54. 54. ❖Discuss: We name the trigger and invite discussion about it with the triggering person or organization. ❖Confront: We name the trigger and demand that the offending behavior or policy be changed. ❖Strategize: We work with others to develop a programmatic or political intervention to address the trigger in a larger context. ❖Discretion: Because of dynamics in the situation (for example, power differences, risk of physical violence or retribution), we decide that it is not in our best interests to respond to the trigger at that time, but choose to address the trigger in some other way at another time.
  55. 55. Overview of Possible Responses to Triggers: ⚫ Leave ⚫ Avoidance ⚫ Silence ⚫ Release ⚫ Confusion ⚫ Shock ⚫ Surprise ⚫ Attack ⚫ Internalization ⚫ Rationalization ⚫ Misinterpretation ⚫ Name ⚫ Discuss ⚫ Confront ⚫ Strategize ⚫ Discretion
  56. 56. Group Discussion
  57. 57. Discussion Questions: 1. Which responses are most typical for you when you are triggered? As a member of ‘the norm’? As an member of ‘the other’? 1. Are there differences in how you respond to triggers depending on your different social group memberships or identities? 1. Which responses would you like to add to your repertoire? 4. Which responses do you use now and would like to stop using or use more selectively? 5. What blocks you from responding to triggers in ways that feel more effective? 6. What can you do to expand your response repertoire?
  58. 58. In summary, the main ideas of conflict theory are… ⚫ Groups & individuals try to advance their interests over the interests of others ⚫ Power is unequally divided & some groups dominate others ⚫ Social order is based on manipulation & control of nondominant groups by dominant groups ⚫ Lack of open conflict is a sign of exploitation ⚫ Members of nondominant groups become alienated from society ⚫ Social change is driven by conflict, with periods of change interrupting long periods of stability
  59. 59. Conflict theory’s contribution to social work practice ⚫ Recognizes the interconnection between social structure, culture, personality ⚫ Helps explain the roots of social injustice amongst and between classes, including oppression due to gender difference ⚫ Rejects the status quo & the equilibrium that aims to maintain inequality ⚫ Recognizes that numerous social conflicts can be occurring at the same time ⚫ Recognizes that people can have overlapping status groups & conflicts between the groups ⚫ Provides an activist model for social work practice
  60. 60. How applicable are these ideas about conflict & power for your work? ⮚Do you see social classes in the Philippines? & Mindanao? ⮚What classes have “power”? ⮚What determines the power?
  61. 61. Does social change have to occur through armed conflict & violence?
  62. 62. Can conflict be “transformational”? Can you think of some positive outcomes of conflict?
  63. 63. Some contemporary scholars propose that… ⚫Conflict is a “social process” that can be positive. ⚫Conflict can potentially contribute to development, change, & eventual stability ⚫ (Goodhand & Hulme,1999)
  64. 64. Principles of Conflict ⚫Conflict has a function in Society. ⚫Conflict is positive. ⚫Conflict is a normal part of any relationship. ⚫Conflict is ongoing dynamic. What do you think is lacking?
  65. 65. 1.) Human Costs – combat, rape, torture, disruption of individuals ability to earn a living ,trauma, fear, depression , physical and emotional (sense of hopelessness) and the like. Can you think of some negative outcomes of intractable conflict? 2.) Economic costs 3.) Environmental degradation 4.) Organizational costs
  66. 66. 6.) Anomie ⚫simply defined , a state where norms (expectations on behavior) are confused , unclear or not present ⚫normlessness ⚫A breakdown in the cultural structure, occurring particularly when there is an acute disjunction between cultural norms and goals and the societies structural capacities of members of the groups to act in accord with them.
  67. 67. Merton’s Anomie Merton’s theory involves the interaction of 2 social components: ⚫Culture goals – the aspirations and aims that define success in society. ⚫Institutionalized means – the socially acceptable methods and ways available for achieving goals.
  68. 68. ⚫There are 4 adaptations apart from conformity that can be defined as deviant: a.) INNOVATION – is the adaptation in which most property crimes would be found. It occurs when persons accept without qualification the importance of attaining the goals and will use any means regardless of their prosperity, morality, or legality to achieve those goals.
  69. 69. b.) RITUALISM – is a behavioral alternative in which great aspirations are abandoned in favor of careful adherence to the available means. Early morning classes often considered ritualists. Attendance is not a means for them to attain success; they are there simply because they should be.
  70. 70. c.) RETREATISM – is the category containing the mentally disordered, drug addicts, alcoholics and any other groups that has apparently withdrawn from the competitive struggle. Thus persons do not strive for the goals that society encourages, nor do they obey rules of how to act. They seek their own private rewards and live by rules peculiar to their style of living. ⚫
  71. 71. d.) REBELLION – involves not only a rejection of the goals and means, but the intention of replacing those goals and means by altering the social structure.
  72. 72. Comments /Criticism of Anomie: ⚫Middle class Bias ⚫Irrelevance of anomie from more forms of deviation ⚫Absence of value consensus
  73. 73. 7.) CONTROL THEORY ⚫according to this theory , the social environment does not push one toward deviant behavior; rather, it fails to restrain one from so behaving ⚫Deviance is not caused by the present values, beliefs or other motivating factors, but by the absence of values and beliefs that normally forbid delinquency
  74. 74. ⚫Most of us do not engage in deviant or criminal acts because of strong bonds with or ties to conventional, mainstream social institutions. If these bonds are weak or broken, we will be released from society’s rules and will be free to deviate. ⚫Society or neighborhood is able to invest its citizens or residents with a stake worth protecting, it will have lower rates of crime vs. society where strong bond is not present or relatively low.
  75. 75. 8.) DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY ⚫The explanation of crime lay not in biology but in the social world and that crime is transmitted through intimate personal groups. ⚫Some groups are organized fro criminal activities and some are organized against these activities.
  76. 76. Propositions of Differential AssociationTheory ⚫Crime is learned ⚫Criminal Behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication.
  77. 77. ⚫The principal part of learning criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups. Impersonal communication such as television, magazines and the like play only a secondary role in the learning of crime. ⚫When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes techniques of crime, which are sometimes complicated, simple, the motives and drives.
  78. 78. 9.) Labeling Theory ⚫Deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits but rather a consequence of the application by other rules and sanction to an “offender”. ⚫Any word attached to a person sometimes become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
  79. 79. SHUKRAN!