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Bryson Chapter 10
Implementing Strategies and Plans
Successfully
 Well executed implementation (step 9) completes the
transition from strategic planning to strategic management
by incorp...
 Desired Outcomes, con’t
4. Successful implementation is likely to include
summative evaluations to find out whether
stra...
 Benefits
1. Creation of real public value as changes are
introduced smoothly and rapidly, worthwhile goals
are achieved,...
 Programs and Projects
New or revised programs and projects are a
components of many strategic change efforts.
Programs a...
 Program and Project Plans-components,
con’t
5. Definition of the outputs to be produced
6. Identification of target clie...
 The Special Role of Budgets
Budget allocations have crucial if not overriding
significance for the implementation of str...
 Suggestions on avoiding the gap between
budgeting and strategic planning, con’t
4. Be aware the prior strategic planning...
 Process Guidelines
Successful implementation of strategies and plans
will depend primarily on the design and use of vari...
 Process Guidelines: General Guidelines, con’t
4. Use a program and project management approach
wherever possible.
5. Bui...
10. Think carefully about how residual disputes
will be resolved and underlying norms enforced.
11. Remember that major ch...
 Personnel Guidelines
1. As much as possible, fill leadership and staff
positions with highly qualified people
committed ...
 Direct and Staged Implementation Guidelines
1. Consider direct implementation when the situation
is technically and poli...
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Bryson. chapter 9. implementing strategies and plans successfully(1)

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Bryson. chapter 9. implementing strategies and plans successfully(1)

  1. 1. Bryson Chapter 10 Implementing Strategies and Plans Successfully
  2. 2.  Well executed implementation (step 9) completes the transition from strategic planning to strategic management by incorporating adopted strategies throughout the relevant system. Developing effective programs, projects, action plans, budgets, and implementation processes will bring life to the strategies and create more tangible value for the organization and its stakeholders as mandates are then met and mission fulfilled.  Desired Outcomes 1. Greater public value resulting from greater achievement of the organization’s goals and heightened stakeholder satisfaction. 2. Development of a clear understanding by implementers of what needs to be done and when, why, and by whom. 3. The use of the debugging process to identify and fix difficulties that almost inevitable arise as a new solution is put in place.
  3. 3.  Desired Outcomes, con’t 4. Successful implementation is likely to include summative evaluations to find out whether strategic goals have actually been achieved once strategies are fully implemented. 5. Retention of important features of the adopted strategies and plans. 6. The creation of redesigned organizational settings that will ensure long-lasting changes. 7. The establishment or anticipation of review points, during which strategies may be maintained, significantly modified, or terminated.
  4. 4.  Benefits 1. Creation of real public value as changes are introduced smoothly and rapidly, worthwhile goals are achieved, and stakeholder satisfaction is enhanced. 2. The avoidance of typical causes of failure. 3. Increased support from the leaders and the organization that have successfully implemented the changes and who are now seen as having more legitimacy. 4. Individuals involved in effective implementation of desirable changes are likely to experience heightened self-esteem and self-confidence. For these various benefits to accrue, a number of implementation vehicles are likely to be necessary. They include, programs, projects, and budgets
  5. 5.  Programs and Projects New or revised programs and projects are a components of many strategic change efforts. Programs and projects can also focus attention on strategic initiatives, facilitate detailed learning, build momentum behind changes, provide increased accountability, and allow easier termination of initiative that turn out to be undesirable. Programs and projects are a version of action plans and should have the following components: 1. Definition of purpose 2. Articulation of the logic model guiding the initiative 3. Clarification of program or project organization and mechanism for resolving conflict 4. Calculation of the inputs desired ,including financial, human resources, information technology, and other resource plans
  6. 6.  Program and Project Plans-components, con’t 5. Definition of the outputs to be produced 6. Identification of target clients 7. Clarification of the process by which inputs are to be converted to outputs 8. Timeline of activities and decision points 9. Specification of objectively verifiable indicators of key aspects of the logic model 10. Indicators or assumptions that are key to the success of the project
  7. 7.  The Special Role of Budgets Budget allocations have crucial if not overriding significance for the implementation of strategies and plans. Budgets often represent the most important and consequential policy statements that nonprofit organizations can make. Not all strategies and plans have budget significance, but enough do that nonprofit leaders and managers should consider involving themselves deeply in the process of budget making. Doing so is likely to be a particularly effective way to affect the design, adoption, and execution of strategies and plans. Often there is a gap between budgeting and planning. A few suggestions to avoid the gap given that performance control on the one hand and strategies and programs on the other are equally important: 1. Have strategic planning preceded the budget cycle. 2. Build a performance budgeting system.
  8. 8.  Suggestions on avoiding the gap between budgeting and strategic planning, con’t 4. Be aware the prior strategic planning efforts can provide many of the promises needed to try to influence budgeting in strategic directions. 5. Pick your budget fights carefully. 6. Consider implementing entrepreneurial budgeting concepts to advance strategic purposes. 7. Make sure you have good analysts involved in the budgeting process. 8. Develop criteria for evaluating budgets for all programs-preexisting to new. 9. If you can, involve the same people in both strategy formulation and implementation
  9. 9.  Process Guidelines Successful implementation of strategies and plans will depend primarily on the design and use of various implementation structures that coordinate and manage implementation activities. General guidelines are provided in addition to guidelines for managing communication and education, personnel, and direct and staged implementation.  General Guidelines 1. Consciously and deliberately plan and manage implementation in a strategic way. 2. Develop implementation strategy documents and action plans to guide implementation and focus attention on necessary decisions, actions, and responsible parties. 3. Try changes that can be introduced easily and rapidly
  10. 10.  Process Guidelines: General Guidelines, con’t 4. Use a program and project management approach wherever possible. 5. Build enough people, time, attention, money, administrative and support serves, and other resources to ensure successful implementation. 6. Link new strategic initiatives with ongoing operations. 7. Work quickly to avoid unnecessary or undesirable competition with new priorities. 8. Focus on maintaining or developing coalition of implementers, advocates, and interest groups intent on effective implementation of the strategies and willing to protect them over the long haul. 9. Be sure legislative, executive, and administrative policies and actions facilitate rather than impede implementation.
  11. 11. 10. Think carefully about how residual disputes will be resolved and underlying norms enforced. 11. Remember that major changes, and even minor ones, entail changes in the organization’s culture. 12. Emphasize learning. 13. Hang in there!  Communication and Education Guidelines 1. Invest in communication activities. 2. Work to reduce resistance based on divergent attitudes and lack of participation. 3. Consider developing a guiding vision of success if one has not been developed already. 4. Build regular attention to appropriate indicators.
  12. 12.  Personnel Guidelines 1. As much as possible, fill leadership and staff positions with highly qualified people committed to the change effort. 2. Give the strategic planning team the task of planning and managing implementation or establish an implementation team that has a significant overlap in membership with the planning team. 3. Ensure access to and liaison with top administrators during implementation. 4. Give special attention to the problem of easing out, working around, or avoiding people who are not likely to help the change effort for whatever reason.
  13. 13.  Direct and Staged Implementation Guidelines 1. Consider direct implementation when the situation is technically and politically simple, immediate action is necessary for system survival in a crisis, or the adopted solutions entail some “lumpiness” that preclude staged implementation. 2. In difficult situations, consider staged implementation. 3. Design pilot projects to be effective ( see considerations p.260). 4. Design demonstration projects to be effective( see considerations p.261). 5. Carefully transfer tested changes to other implementers ( see steps p.261) 6. When the implementation process is staged, give special attention to those who will implement the changes in the early stages.

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