1. 1. AdvertisingObjectives :
Direct response advertising: where direct action is required by the receiver
in response to exposure to message, measurement of sales is justifiable. Thus
it attempts to induce quick response from the members of the target
Ads offering some kind of incentive, or ads announcing contests, or encouraging
prospects to place orders on phone or through internet. In such cases evaluation is
based on sales results.
The retail sector: can also use sales measures, and it has been suggested
that packaged goods organizations, operating in markets, which are mature
with established pricing and distribution structures, can build a databank
from which it is possible to isolate the advertising effect through sales.
If a particular celebrity is used for an ad campaign and a particular amount of
money is spent on it, by monitoring the amount of sales, it is possible to evaluate
the success of the campaign or success of using the celebrity.
Sales Promotion Programs: Many sales promotion programs have sales
objectives since their goal is often to generate trial or short-term sales
Several companies come up with the scratch and win offers. Britannia at the time
of world cup had actually come up with such offers “ Britanniakhao, world cup
However, there are certain difficulties associated with using sales as advertising
Sales could result from variety of influences, such as the other marketing
mix elements, competitor actions and wider environmental effects, like the
strength of the currency or the level of interest.
Concept of adstock or carryover: the impact of promotional expenditure
will not be immediately apparent as the receiver may not enter the market
until a later date but the effects of the promotion may still influence the final
purchase decision. Thus while measuring effectiveness of campaign, sales
results may not show its full impact as there is considerable time lag
between audience exposure to ad and actual sales.
2. Sales objectives do little to assist the media planner, copywriters and
creative team working on the communication programme.
2.Lavidge Steiner model of communication
Robert J. Lavidge and Gary A. Steiner | A Model For Predictive Measurements of
Advertising Effectiveness | Advertising & Society Review 1:1 A Model For
Predictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness Robert J. Lavidge and Gary
A. Steiner Lavidge, Robert J. and Gary A. Steiner. 1961. A model for predictive
measurements of advertising effectiveness. Journal of Marketing. 25(October), 59-
62. Reprinted with the permission of the American Marketing
Association.Reprinted with the permission of the American Marketing
Association. 1The development and selection of research designs too often reflects
thinking which is technique-oriented. This article looks at advertising research
from another viewpoint. It starts with the questions: What is advertising supposed
to do? What are its functions? The authors then show the implications of these
questions in relation to measurements of the effectiveness of proposed
advertisements. 2What are the functions of advertising? Obviously the ultimate
function is to help produce sales. But all advertising is not, should not, and cannot
be designed to produce immediate purchases on the part of all who are exposed to
it. Immediate sales results (even if measurable) are, at best, an incomplete criterion
of advertising effectiveness. In other words, the effects of much advertising are
"long-term." This is sometimes taken to imply that all one can really do is wait and
see — ultimately the campaign will or will not produce.
1. The Headline
The Headline is the most read part of an advertisement. So advertisers try to tell
maximum part of the product story through the headline. A headline will introduce
the product or makes the promise statement or puts a question. It basically tries to
attract the attention of the readers and create curiosity so the audience or reader
sees further. The major types of headlines are:
3. Direct promise of benefit
News about the product
Curiosity or provocative, and
Direct headlines make a direct promise about how the product will benefit the
readers. Readers are often interested in what is new in the product so the words
‗new‘, ‗improved‘, etc. are often used in headlines. Such headlines provide some
new ‗information‘ and are called news headline.
Sometimes the promise or benefit is not offered in the headline. Instead an indirect
approach is adopted by either posing a question or making a provocative statement,
the headline tries to create a lot of curiosity about the product. It also forces the
readers or the audience to see the copy and the promise is made in the copy of the
Ad. In command headlines, the readers are urged to buy the product by promising
a reward. For example, ‗buy one, get one free‘ or ‗buy for the price of two‘.
Usually they command or ask the consumers to buy.
Another type of headline is the select headline. This is directed at the headline
scanners. Such a headline selects it own audience and can reach selected groups by
either addressing them directly or by discussing their specific problems.
2. The Sub-Headline
This is not always used in ads. However, when the advertiser wants to say a lot at
the beginning but the headline cannot do the job, then the subheading is used. The
headline and subheading together can contain a longer message. The subheading
usually spells out or elaborates the promise made in the headline or it stresses on
the product‘s unique features.
It is a phrase or a sentence that describes the benefit derived from the product or
one of the product‘s most important attributes. The term slogan comes from the
Gaelic words sluaghgairm, meaning battle cry. These days it is the battle cry in the
field of sales and marketing. It consists of a single phrase by which an advertiser
conveys an important idea, which will presumably lead readers or audience to
remember and think favorably of this company. Slogan is thus a shortand catchy
phrase that gets the attention of the audience, is easy to remember and comes
off the tongue easily. Slogan can of different types:
4. Slogan that emphasizes product or reward- every product has some reward
to offer consumers. It may have some hidden quality that differentiates a
product from the competitors.
Slogans that emphasizes action to be taken- the slogan might urge directly
that you use the product or service.
4. Body Copy
When the headline usually makes a claim, the body copy elaborates upon it and
provides supporting proof. When the headline poses a question, the subheading
answers it. The amount of detail in an advertisement should be sufficient to answer
the questions arising in the minds of a prospective buyer. And if the consumers
require more details or information, then they can be requested to come back to the
company for information booklets or can be invited to come to the retailer or
dealer for more information or demonstration.
Sometimes the consumer wants a proof or evidence of the claims made in the
advertisement. So proofs about quality, performance, durability, etc. are provided
through arguments, proofs by experts, testimonials by users or through
demonstrations in the body copy.
The headline is a major attraction –getting device. Another device is the visual
impact of the ad. This is the combination of the visuals used in the advertisements
and the visual treatment given to other elements of the ad. This visual impact
becomes strong if the idea has been properly visualized.
Visualization means to think in terms of visuals or pictures. And one need not be
an artist or painter to be able to visualize as all it require is thinking.
For example think about the picture, which comes to your mind when you think the
word ‗flower‘. It could be a bouquet of flower or a garden full of beautiful flowers.
These kind of perceptions need to be portrayed in the advertisements. A visualizer
need not draw or paint these things but can just describe these and leave the
drawing to the artists.
Visuals and pictures help people dream and project themselves in to another time,
place, or situation. Pictures appeal to our hidden and suppressed emotions. Also
pictures communicate ideas quickly and easily and also there is no chance of
misinterpretation. Visuals not only attract attention, they hold the interest and often
5. tell maximum part of the story. Visuals also identify the product, arouse interest,
create a favorable impression of the product or the advertiser, clarify claims made
in the copy, make demonstrations, emphasize the unique features of the product.
And finally the visuals provide continuity for all advertisements in the campaign
through the use of similar visuals.
Layout has two meanings. One means the total appearance of the advertisement, its
design, the composition of the various elements. The other meaning is the act or
process of placing the elements (copy, visuals, etc) together.
A layout could be the first pencil sketch, which puts the idea on paper or could also
be the final piece after finishing touches. Good layouts are unimaginative. The
various stages of a layout are:
Thumbnail sketches- Advertising people usually work in pairs. A
copywriter and a visualizer sit together and create ideas. The first thing they
do is to come up with as many ideas as possible. And as they get the ideas
they put them on paper, which is called thinking on paper. This helps in
many ways-it records all the ideas options on paper, it gives some kind of a
shape to the idea without using any expensive color, wasting much paper,
etc. and without spending much time and efforts. In the thumbnail sketch the
various elements of the advertisement are just schematically or
diagrammatically represented. For example, a thick serrated line represents
the headline. Thinner serrated lines represent the subheading and the slogan.
Straight lines or dotted lines represent body copy. Boxes crossed inside
represent visuals. Also thumbnail sketches are very small in size. Only the
shape is proper-being proportionately smaller.
Rough sketches- in the rough stage, bigger layouts are made so that
moredetails can be accommodated. Hand lettering is done for the headlines
and other copy parts that are to be composed in bigger type sizes. A rough
sketch of the visual is pasted. These rough layouts are presented to the
agency creative director for approval. Then the rough layout is further
Comprehensive stage- the rough layout is still small in size, with no color,
with no proper borders and no proper lettering and visuals. Now it is
enlarged to its actual size. All the copy is lettered or composed. Proper
borders and other marks are put on the layout. Photographs and other visual
are cut from other places or Photostatted and pasted. Some coloring-
6. particularly using crayons, water colors, etc is done. This stage is called the
comprehensive stage. As the name suggests this layout is easy to understand.
This layout is presented to the client for approval. Once the client approves
the layout, it is then ready for the final finishing touches.
Art work-this is the final stage of layout. Here care is taken to look into
each minute detail. The copy is properly composed or lettered. Proper
photographs, paintings, sketches, or graphics are used. Other elements like
borders etc are properly places. Coloring is done. Finishing artists give the
final touches. This stage is now ready to be printed. All these various stages
of preparing the layout are beneficial in a many ways. First these stages save
time, money and efforts. If you prepare a final layout without taking the
approval and it gets rejected, then all the material used, efforts and time
spend are wasted. Also working on only one idea curtails the various other
A layout starts with a blank piece of paper. What the layout artist does is to place
the copy, visuals and other elements on it. This placing of elements is not just mere
decoration. What is required is a good, clear vision and interpretation of the selling
concept of the story. A good layout allows all its elements-visuals, headlines,
subheadings, body copy, charts, maps, logo, borders and other elements-to work
together to do the job of telling the product story.
A good layout takes into consideration the principles of balance, proportion, unity,
contrast, harmony, rhythm, and direction. And finally a good layout must be
attractive, must create an appropriated mood or feeling, must have individually to
stand out fr9om the clutter of advertisements.
The term trademark includes any word, symbol or device or any combination there
of adopted and used by a manufacturer or merchant to identify his goods and
distinguish them from those manufactured or sold by others in the market.
Trademarks are important because of two reasons:
It increases the credibility of the firm because the buyer buys the product
only after looking at the brand name.
Registration of trademarks prohibits duplication.
7. 4. Measuring advertisement effectiveness
The basics of measuring effectiveness
Our main objective in measuring advertising effectiveness is to determine the
effect of each advertising campaign from the results of our measuring and
compare it with its price. Then we can decide which campaigns bring the best
value for the money spent.
It is also important to realise the various factors influencing advertising. The
medium, ad copy (exact wording), the format, audience (is the ad well aimed to
the people who use our products?) – all of this effects the final success of the
campaign. Therefore, it is necessary to judge the effectiveness in context.
Before we start, we need to decide which criteriaare we going to monitor. These
will differ with respect to the medium used, our possibilities, the purpose of the
Examples of possible criteria are:
customers tell how did they learn about us
increase in sales of the promoted goods
more calls to our toll-free line
calls to a campaign-specific phone number
specific codes applied by customers to receive offered discount (i.e. „Tube―)
redeemed coupons or vouchers that were given out at a campaing
increased visits on our website
other metrics from our website statistics (i.e. orders amount) – see below
It is best to combine several criteria, because a customer can for example either
contact you by calling your line or by sending you an email. Also, accept the fact,
thatwe are not going to be able to measure everything. Especially if you run
several campaigns in various media simultaneously, it may be difficult to ascribe
the measured effects to a specific campaign. This can be helped by careful choice
of criteria or by running campainsseperately (though it is not always desirable).
Contrary to traditional media, online campaigns are usually very easily
traceable and can be measured well.
8. Small companies will probably not use the methods of big corporations (ad
recognition or recall) which are based on questioning samples of people once the
campaign has ended. This would be too costly for small advertisers. Instead, you
can simply judge the impact by how many people has the medium reached
(viewers, readers, listeners) and comparing how much did it cost to reach thousand
people (this is called CPM).
5. Guidelines for advertising
Advertising Industry in India is on the expansion spree for the last few years and
has become a serious and big business growing at a considerable rate. However,
the growth of this industry is affected by the prevalent malpractices carried out by
advertisers in order to lure the consumers and sustaining an edge over the
competitors. Advertisement is often described as commercial speech and enjoys
protection under Article 19(1)(a) of the Indian Constitution. As a facet of the Right
to Information, it facilitates the dissemination of information about the sellers and
their products. However, the manner of facilitation is subject to a number of
Under the Indian legal regime, the prominent, prohibitory legal provisions that
regulate advertising are:
1. Obscene publication or advertisement of a lottery under the Indian Penal
2. Harmful publication under the Young Persons (Harmful Publications)
3. The indecent representation of women under the Indecent Representation
of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986.
4. Use of report of test or analysis for advertising any drug or cosmetic
under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.
5. Inviting transplantation of organs under the Transplantation of Human
Organs Act, 1994.
9. 6. Advertisement of magical remedies of diseases and disorders under Drugs
and Magical Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954.
7. Advertisements relating to prenatal determination of sex uner the Prenatal
Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994.
8. Advertisements of cigarettes and other tobacco products under tah Cigarettes
and other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of
Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003.
9. Any political advertisement forty hours prior to polling time under the
Representation of People Act, 1951.
Absence of a single comprehensive legislation had created a lot of confusion in the
advertising industry. In 1985, a self regulatory mechanism of ensuring ethical
advertising practices was established in the form of the Advertising Standards
Council of India (ASCI), a non statutory tribunal. ASCI entertained and disposed
off complaints based on its Code of Advertising Practice (ASCI Code). Gradually,
the ASCI Code received huge recognition from the advertising industry. In August
2006, the ASCI Code was made compulsory for TV advertisements by amending
the Cable Television Networks (Amendment) Rules, 2006: ―No advertisement
which violates the Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising, as adopted by the
ASCI, Mumbai fro public exhibition in India, from time to time, shall be carried in
the cable service.‖ This move has provided a binding effect on the ASCI Code.
Rule 7 postulates that any advertisement which derides any race, caste and tends to
incite people to crime, cause disorder or are indecent or vulgar. Further, section 6
of the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1955 prohibits the
transmission or retransmission of any advertisement through a cable service unless
they are in conformity with the ASCI Code. The key objectives of ASCI code is to
ensure that advertisements must –
Make truthful and honest representations and claims which is essential to
prohibit misleading advertisements;
Not be offensive to public decency or morality;
Not promote products which are hazardous or harmful to society or to
individuals, particularly minors; and
Observe fairness in competition keeping in mind consumer‘s interests.
Under the ASCI Code, complaints against the advertisements can be made by any
person who considers them to be false, misleading, offensive, or unfair. The
complaints are evaluated by an independent Consumer Complaints Council (CCC).
10. CCC decides on complaints from the general public including government
officials, consumer groups, etc., complaints from one advertiser against another
and even suomoto complaints from the member of the ASCI Board, CCC, or the
Secretariat. The CCC usually decides upon the complaints within a period of 4 to 6
weeks once the party concerned is afforded an opportunity of presenting its case.
Multimedia is more than one concurrent presentation medium (for example, on
CD-ROM or a Web site). Although still images are a different medium than text,
multimedia is typically used to mean the combination of text, sound, and/or motion
video. Some people might say that the addition of animated images (for example,
animated GIF on the Web) produces multimedia, but it has typically meant one of
Text and sound
Text, sound, and still or animated graphic images
Text, sound, and video images
Video and sound
Multiple display areas, images, or presentations presented concurrently
In live situations, the use of a speaker or actors and
"props" together with sound, images, and motion video
Multimedia can arguably be distinguished from traditional motion pictures or
movies both by the scale of the production (multimedia is usually smaller and less
expensive) and by the possibility of audience interactivity or involvement (in
which case, it is usually called interactive multimedia). Interactive elements can
include: voice command, mouse manipulation, text entry, touch screen, video
capture of the user, or live participation (in live presentations).
Multimedia tends to imply sophistication (and relatively more expense) in both
production and presentation than simple text-and-images. Multimedia
presentations are possible in many contexts, including the Web, CD-ROMs, and
live theater. A rule-of-thumb for the minimum development cost of a packaged
multimedia production with video for commercial presentation (as at trade shows)
is: $1,000 a minute of presentation time. Since any Web site can be viewed as a
multimedia presentation, however, any tool that helps develop a site in multimedia
form can be classed as multimedia software and the cost can be less than for
standard video productions.