A PRESENTATION ON
SUMMER TRAINING AT 220 KV
G.S.S., HINDAUN CITY
Branch : EEE
The "220 KV.GSS, RVPN Ltd. is ideally located at the HINDAUN
CITY. GSS is the medium of connection between generating station
and consumers (Traction, Industrial & Domestic etc.) by providing
safety and reliability of whole system in case of fault.
Steps of this sub- station are :- to step down the incoming voltage of
power transmission to a required value i.e. 220 KV to 132 KV, 132 KV
to 33KV and then supply to consumer's feeders of GSS done by
connecting auto-transformer. Operation requirement of various
equipment have been included in detailed manner further in report.
There are 3 incoming line from 2 different sub-station. One line of
220KV coming from DAUSA(Lilo sikraye), second line of 220 KV
coming from GUDAPOLE and third line from 400KV GSS
132 KV AND 33KV OUTGOING FEEDERS
• There are two different outgoing traction line of 132kv for railways,
next we have six 132kv outgoing feeder namely :
• 1.132 kv Todabhim
• 2.132 kv Shri Mahaveer Ji
• 3.132 kv Gangapur
• 4.132 kv Karauli
• 5.132 kv Weir
• 6.132 kv Baseri
WHAT IS A SUBSTATION?
• In India electrical power is generated at a
voltage of 11KV to 33 KV which is stepped up
to the transmission level in the range of 66 KV
to 400 KV, This voltage level is stepped down
again in the range of 220 KV to 220 VOLT. For
transmitting power member of transmission
and switching have to be created. These are
known as “SUB STATION”.
IMPORTANT INSTRUMENTS AT A
• Main bus and auxiliary bus
• Protective Relays
• Circuit Breaker
• Power Transformers
• Current Transformers
• Potential Transformers
• Lightning Arresters
• Relay and metering panels
Shunt capacitors and shunt
• Bus Coupler
• On Load Tap Changer
• At 220 kv gss Hindaun city we have 2 main bus
bars of 220kv main bus-1 and main bus2 ,also
we have one auxiliary bus bar of 220 kv in
case of failure of one of the bus bar it can
supply power hence increasing the reliability
of the system , apart from 220 kv bus bar we
have one main bus bar of 132 kv namely main
bus 1 and auxiliary bus of 132kv.
• Various voltage levels and the suitable conductors used for them at the
220 kv GSS are mentioned below:
• 220 kV Main Bus : Quadruple / Twin ACSR Zebra / Twin AAC Tarantulla
• 220 kV Auxiliary Bus : ACSR Zebra
• 220 kV equipment interconnection : Twin ACSR Zebra / Single ACSR Zebra
• 220 kV overhead bus & droppers in all bays : Twin ACSR Zebra / Single
• 132 kV Main Bus : ACSR Zebra
• 132 kV Auxiliary Bus : ACSR Panther
• 132 kV equipment inter connection : ACSR Zebra / ACSR Panther
• 132 kV overhead bus & droppers in all bays : ACSR Panther
• 33 kV Main Bus ACSR Zebra
• 33 kV Auxiliary Bus ACSR Zebra
• The insulator for the overhead lines provides
insulation to the power conductors from the
ground so that currents from conductors do not
flow to earth through supports.
• These insulators are generally made of glazed
porcelain or toughened glass. Insulators are
zigzag in shape to reduce the current flow.
Diameter of the insulators are decided according
to the voltage level.
Primary purpose of a relay is to detect the fault and take
the necessary action to minimize the damage to the
equipment or to the system
• During a fault, the zone which includes the
faulted apparatus is de-energized and
disconnected from the system. In addition to
its protective function, a circuit breaker is also
used for circuit switching under normal
conditions. The main function of a circuit
breaker is to quench the arc as soon as
possible in case of a fault. At 220 kv gss we
have sf6 circuit breaker(ABB).
• “Isolator" is one, which can break and make
an electric circuit in no load condition. These
are normally used in various circuits for the
purposes of Isolation of a certain portion
when required for maintenance.
They are capable of:
• Interrupting transformer magnetized currents
• Interrupting line charging current
• Load transfer switching
• Distribution transformers reduce the voltage of the primary circuit to the voltage required by
customers. This voltage varies and is usually:
• 120/240 volts single phase for residential customers
• 480Y/277 or 208Y/120 for commercial or light industry customers.
• We have three transformers of total capacity 250 MVA namely:
• 1. BHEL transformer of 50 MVA capacity and 220/132kv
• 2. GEC transformer of 100 MVA capacity and 220/132kv
• 3. TELK transformer of 100 MVA capacity and 220/132kv.
• Along with these transformers of 220/132 kv we have three more transformers of 132/33 kv
• 1. IMP transformer of 25 MVA capacity
• 2. GEC transformer of 25 MVA capacity
• 3. BHEL transformer of 12.5 MVA capacity
• As you all know this is the device which
provides the pre-decoded fraction of the
primary current passing through the line/bus
main circuit. Such as primary current 60A,
75A, 150A, 240A, 300A, 400A, to the
secondary output of 1A to 5A
• A potential transformer (PT) is used to transform the high voltage of a
power line to a lower value, which is in the range of an ac voltmeter or the
potential coil of an ac voltmeter.
• Capacitive voltage transformer is being used more and more for voltage
measurement in high voltage transmission network, particularly for
systems voltage of 132KV and above where it becomes increasingly more
economical. It enables measurement of the line to earth voltage to be
made with simultaneous provision for carrier frequency coupling, which
has reached wide application in modern high voltage network for tele
metering remote control and telephone communication purpose
• A lightning arrester (in Europe: surge arrester) is a device used on power
systems and telecommunications systems to protect the insulation and
conductors of the system from the damaging effects of lightning. The
typical lightning arrester has a high-voltage terminal and a ground
terminal. When a lightning surge (or switching surge, which is very similar)
travels along the power line to the arrester, the current from the surge is
diverted through the arrestor, in most cases to earth.
Manufacture: English electric company
• No. of phase: One
• Rated voltage: 360 kV
• Nominal discharge current: (8×20μs) 10 kA
• High current impulse: (4× 100μs) 100 kA
• Long distribution rating: (200μs) 500 kA
• Control panel contain meters, control switches and recorders
located in the control building. These are used to control the
substation equipment to send power from one circuit to
another or to open or to shut down circuits when needed. It is
the brain of the GSS.
• In this method a number of tapings are
provided on the secondary of the transformer.
The voltage drop in the line is supplied by
changing the secondary emf of the
transformer through the adjustment of its
number of turns by using transition resistor
which is placed in between each tapping
Earthing is the provision of a surface under the sub station, which has a uniform potential as nearly as
zero or equal to Absolute Earth potential. The provision of an earthing system for an electric system is
necessary by the following reason.
1. In the event of over voltage on the system due to lighting discharge or other system fault. These parts
of equipment which are normally dead as for as voltage, are concerned do not attain dangerously high
2. In a three phase, circuit the neutral of the system is earthed in order to stabilize the potential of
circuit with respect to earth.
The earthing is of two principal types :-
· Neutral Earthing
· Equipment Body Earthing
• We have a battery room which has 55
batteries of 2.3 to 2.5 volt each for 132KV
section and 110 batteries for 220KV section.
Therefore D.C. power available is for
functioning of the control panels.
• Relay trips as fault is detected in the system.
• Breaker operates
• Alarm at control room blows up
• Alarm is manually reset
• If the fault persists , isolator is removed
• If no local fault present , then fault feeder is
• Relay is reset
• Supply is resumed after fault removal
Maintenance of GSS
• Visual checking of any hotspot
• Checking of air and gas leakage from the
• Taking readings from the control panels of 220
kv and 132 kv
• Checking of oil level from CT and CVT
• Permission from SLDC
• Switching load to other transformer
• CB is operated
• Isolators are operated
• Earthing is provided to remove the residual
charge due to induction
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