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Nutrition throughout Adolescence


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Nutrition throughout Adolescence

  1. 1. Learning Objectives At the end of this lesson the students should be able to: Review concepts learnt in the previous lesson by engaging in the MILLY game and introduce today’s lesson. Plan a typical day’s meal for an adolescent to meet their nutritional needs using the food group chart Relate the changes that both male and female teenagers have during adolescence to their nutritional needs Correctly explain any three possible health risks for adolescents at this stage in the life cycle after PowerPoint presentation List five common factors that impact on food choices of adolescence after class discussion.
  2. 2. DiscussionDiscussion What comes to mind when you hear the term “ adolescent”? A typical day’s diet for a teen Nutritional Needs Health risks / Deficiencies at this stage Changes that a boy/ female experience
  3. 3. ADOLESCENCEADOLESCENCE Adolescence is the name given to the psychosocial life stage which starts around the time of puberty. PUBERTY EARLY ADOLESCENC E MIDDLE ADOLESCENC E LATE ADOLESCENCE FEMAL E 8-11 12-14 14-17 18-21 MALE 9-11.5 12-14 14-17 18-21
  4. 4. DEFINITIONS OF ADOLESCENCE  Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and mental development that occurs between childhood and adulthood. WHO : period of life between 10 and 19 years.
  5. 5. Adolescence:Adolescence: The Vulnerable LifeThe Vulnerable Life StageStage Big changes: Biological Boys—get tall, lean, and dense (bones, that is) Attain 15% of final adult ht during puberty Lean body mass doubles Large calorie needs—increase from 2,000 at 10 yr to 2,500-3,000 at 15 yr
  6. 6. Adolescence: The Vulnerable Life Stage Girls—get taller and fatter % body fat increases from the teens into the mid-20s Gain almost 50% of their adult ideal weight and ht during puberty Dieting can have a negative impact on linear growth during this time Calorie needs increase by only 200 from 10 yr to 15 yr
  7. 7. “The relationship between the adolescent diet and chronic disease risk is based on the assumption that eating behaviors are learned and solidified during childhood and adolescence and are maintained into adulthood” (Lytle 02)
  8. 8. ADOLESCENCE PROVIDES A WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY FOR NUTRITION A transitional period between childhood and adulthood, adolescence provides an opportunity to prepare for a healthy productive and reproductive life, and to prevent the onset of nutrition-related chronic diseases in adult life, while addressing adolescence- specific nutrition issues and possibly also correcting some nutritional problems originating in the past.
  9. 9. ADOLESCENCEADOLESCENCE There is potential for correcting nutritional inadequacies and perhaps even for catch-up growth Improving adolescents’ nutrition behaviours is an investment in adult health Adolescence is a timely period for the adoption and consolidation of sound dietary habits Important for supporting the growing body -for preventing future health problems.
  10. 10. NUTRITIONAL OBJECTIVESNUTRITIONAL OBJECTIVES Provide optimum nutritional support for demands of rapid growth and high energy expenditure Support development of good eating habits by providing variety of foods through a regular pattern. Provide the necessary nutrients to meet the demands of physical and cognitive growth and development.
  11. 11. NUTRITIONAL OBJECTIVESNUTRITIONAL OBJECTIVES Provide adequate stores for illness or pregnancy. Prevent adult onset of diseases related to nutrition e.g., cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and cancer Encourage healthy eating habits and lifestyle
  12. 12. Increased Nutritional Needs The physical changes of adolescence have a direct influence on a person's nutritional needs
  13. 13. Energy/ CaloriesEnergy/ Calories Energy needs of adolescents are influenced by activity level, basal metabolic rate, and increased requirements to support pubertal growth and development. Adolescent males have higher caloric requirements since they experience greater increases in height, weight, and lean body mass than females.
  14. 14. Energy/ CaloriesEnergy/ Calories The Daily Recommended intake (DRI) for energy is based upon the assumption of a light to moderate activity level. Adolescents who participate in competitive sports and those who are more physically active than average may require additional energy to meet their daily caloric needs.  Adolescents who are not physically active and those who have chronic or handicapping conditions that limit mobility will require less energy to meet their needs
  15. 15. HOW MUCH?HOW MUCH?
  16. 16. 55-60% CARBOHYDRATE 15-20% PROTEIN 25-30% FAT
  17. 17. Carbohydrate concerns Too many added sugars Sweetened beverages Sweetened cereals, other foods Cakes, cookies, candy Too little fiber Inadequate fruits and vegetables Inadequate whole grains
  18. 18. MineralsMinerals Minerals play a crucial role in adolescent nutrition. Adolescents, at the peak of their growth velocity, require large quantities of nutrients. The increment in skeletal mass, body size and body density, associated with pubescence, highlights the role of minerals in the growth process . Are they getting sufficient minerals? How would you increase?  Calcium  Iron  Zinc
  19. 19. VitaminsVitamins The requirements for vitamins are also increased during adolescence.  Because of higher energy demands, more thiamine, riboflavin and niacin are necessary for the release of energy from carbohydrates. The increased rate of growth and sexual maturation increases the demand for folic acid and vitamin B-12. The rapid rate of skeletal growth demands more vitamin D. Vitamins A, C, and E are needed in increased amount for new cell growth.
  20. 20. POSSIBLE NUTRITIONALPOSSIBLE NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMSPROBLEMS Low intake of calcium, vitamin a and c Low intake of iron in girls Anaemia Obesity or underweight Skin problems Nutritional deficiencies related to: Fear of overweight or crash diet Food diets Poor choice of snack foods Irregular eating pattern
  21. 21. acebook Poll
  22. 22. Environmental Settings YOUTH Peers Com m unity School Fam ily Neighborhood Media/ Internet
  23. 23. What Influences AdolescentsWhat Influences Adolescents Food Choices?Food Choices? Psychosocial Strong Influences Food preferences Early childhood experiences, exposure, genetics Taste and appearance Weak influence Health and nutrition
  24. 24. PROBLEMS ADOLESCENT NUTRITION Changing lifestyle Skipping breakfast Dining outside often Fast foods and junk foods
  25. 25. NUTRITIONAL RISKSNUTRITIONAL RISKS Eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, which can cause severe health problems and even death, are increasingly common among young people. Poor eating habits and inactivity are the root causes of overweight and obesity. Obesity at this period lead to deterioration of the future health.
  26. 26. NUTRITIONAL RISKSNUTRITIONAL RISKS Weight gain leading to obesity and type 2 diabetes Calcium intake and soft drink consumption leading to inadequate bone mineralization Eating habits that result in disordered eating practices Low consumption of fruit and vegetables and high consumption of fat and sodium are related to adult-onset disease risk
  27. 27. Pumpkin Rice Callaloo Rice Oats Porridge Chicken Sandwich from BK List some other examples

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