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Halifah Husaini (08D0013), Aisah Lamit (08D0047), Roudhahtul Isa (08D0008), Diploma in Primary Education session 2008/2011.


Presented by Halifah Husaini (08D0013):
- Relationship Building Strategies
- Social Skills Instruction

Presented by Aisah Lamit (08D0047):
- Antecedent Based Interventions
- Self Management Interventions

Presented by Roudhahtul Isa (08D0008):
- Group Oriented Management Systems
- Behavior Reduction Interventions

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Publicado en: Educación, Tecnología
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  1. 3. Behavior reduction techniques Strategies to promote good classroom behavior Antecedents-based interventions Group-oriented management systems Self- management interventions Relationship-building strategies Social skills instruction
  2. 4. Behavior reduction techniques Strategies to promote good classroom behavior Antecedents-based interventions Group-oriented management systems Self- management interventions Relationship-building strategies Social skills instruction
  3. 5. <ul><li>Get to know & demonstrate a Personal Interest in Students </li></ul><ul><li>Develop students’ Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Use Humor </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct class Meetings & Use dialoguing </li></ul><ul><li>Be Aware of Non-Verbal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Use Affective Education Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving classroom conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>All shared their opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Placing a box in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Physical distance/ personal space </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Hand gestures/body movements </li></ul><ul><li>Attending the students’ extracurricular events </li></ul><ul><li>Greeting them in the hallways </li></ul><ul><li>Listening actively </li></ul><ul><li>Letting them know that you missed them </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing them to do things for you </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing special events in students’ lives </li></ul><ul><li>By praising </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise their abilities/skills </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to them </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of succeed </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Help students learn how to work in groups </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Make friends </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Recognize & respond appropriately to others’ feelings </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Resolve conflicts & emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with frustration & anger </li></ul>
  8. 11. Changes in classroom events, environments, and stimuli that precede behavior (Conroy, Asmus, Sellers, & Ladwig, 2005; Everston et al., 2006; Stichter, Hudson, & Sasso, 2005)
  9. 12. <ul><li>Give clear and direct directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Use teacher proximity and movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Use cues </li></ul>How? How? How?
  10. 13. <ul><li>Speak in a respectful, firm, and calm voice and manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase your command so that they focus on what they should do and phrased directly . </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Stand near students. </li></ul><ul><li>Placing students desks near you. </li></ul><ul><li>Talking briefly with students while walking around the room. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivering praise, reprimands, and consequences while standing close to students. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring your movement. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Nonverbal - Physical gestures can be used to prompt group or individual responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>individualized eye contact. </li></ul><ul><li>hand signals. </li></ul><ul><li>head movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal remainders. </li></ul>Home
  13. 17. Actively involve students in monitoring and changing their behaviors (Salend & Sylvestre, 2005)
  14. 18. <ul><li>Self-monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-managed free token response-cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-managing peer interactions. </li></ul>Home
  15. 21. <ul><li>Involves teacher and a group of students </li></ul><ul><li>Managing behavior problems </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully observe the impact of these systems on students </li></ul><ul><li>Take note : </li></ul><ul><li>Peer pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Scapegoating </li></ul><ul><li>Choose target behaviors that benefit all students and groups can achieve </li></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>Teach students how the system works, </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify the behavior, </li></ul><ul><li>Set reasonable goals, </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor the system – provide students with feedbacks </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Babyak, Luze, & Kamps, 2000) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 24. Applied to entire group <ul><li>Free time </li></ul><ul><li>Class Trip </li></ul><ul><li>Class Party </li></ul><ul><li>Group Games </li></ul><ul><li>Special Privilege </li></ul>
  18. 25. <ul><li>The class are given free tokens </li></ul><ul><li>Removed when a disruptive behavior occurs </li></ul>
  19. 26. <ul><li>The class is divided into 2 or more group </li></ul><ul><li>Each group’s inappropriate behaviors are recorded in front of the whole class </li></ul>
  20. 28. <ul><li>Give evaluation form to each student in the group </li></ul><ul><li>Rate the group’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the teacher and the students’ ratings </li></ul>Group Average System Consensus-based System
  21. 29. Applied to the whole class Token Economy Systems Students earn token for showing appropriate behavior Individual Students
  22. 30. Token Economy Systems
  23. 31. Applied to the whole class Select students Partners/peers
  24. 32. <ul><li>Promote good behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease misbehavior </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Teach responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Get used to variety of behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Give positive methods of dealing problems </li></ul>
  25. 38. <ul><li>Includes : </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing a new stimulus to recapture the student’s attention; </li></ul><ul><li>Signaling the student verbally and nonverbally to stop a behavior; </li></ul><ul><li>Offering to help the student with a task; </li></ul>
  26. 39. <ul><li>When you ___________, then you can __________ </li></ul><ul><li>If you __________, then I will/you can __________ </li></ul>
  27. 41. <ul><li>Approach students individually with a positive or empathetic comment </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly describing the misbehavior </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly describing the desired behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why the desired behavior is important </li></ul><ul><li>Have student practice and role-play or repeat steps in the desired behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Delivering feedback, praise, or points </li></ul>
  28. 42. <ul><li>Ask students to perform easier or preferred tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate students to do a difficult or unpleasant task </li></ul>
  29. 43. <ul><li>Reinforce and increase a positive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot coexist with the misbehavior that are expected to decrease </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the incidence of misbehavior </li></ul><ul><li>(Jester, 2002) </li></ul>
  30. 46. <ul><li>In certain occasions </li></ul><ul><li>Infrequent, brief, firm </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately after the misbehavior occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Should be focused on the behavior rather than the student (Ferko, 2005) </li></ul>
  31. 47. <ul><li>Decrease misbehavior </li></ul><ul><li>Improve learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Promote good behavior </li></ul>
  32. 48. <ul><li>Before; </li></ul><ul><li>During; </li></ul><ul><li>and after a misbehavior </li></ul>
  33. 50. In self monitoring, students measure their own behaviors by using a data collection system (Harris et al., 2005)
  34. 52. Students are taught to evaluate their in-class behavior according to some standard or scale (Reid et al., 2005)
  35. 53. <ul><li>For examples, you can give a handout with the following behaviors: </li></ul><ul><li>I raised my hand to answer questions. </li></ul><ul><li>I paid attention to the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can also be asked to respond to a series of questions that prompt them to evaluate their behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>For examples: </li></ul><ul><li>How would you describe your behavior in class today? </li></ul><ul><li>What positive behaviors did you use? What happened as a result of these behaviors? </li></ul>
  36. 54. Students are taught to evaluate their behavior and then deliver self-selected rewards if appropriate (Reid et al., 2005)
  37. 55. <ul><li>Give the student an index card with a certain number of symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>The symbols represent the number of inappropriate behaviors the student may exhibit before losing the agreed-on reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>After each in appropriate behavior , the student crosses out one of the symbols on the index card. If any symbols remain in at the end of the class time, the student receives the agreed-on reinforcement. </li></ul>
  38. 56. <ul><li>indentify problems (“What am I being asked to do”) </li></ul><ul><li>generate potential solutions (“What are the ways to do it?”) </li></ul><ul><li>evaluate solutions (“What is the best way?”) </li></ul><ul><li>use appropriate solutions (“Did I do it?”) </li></ul><ul><li>determine whether the solutions were effective (“Did it work?”) </li></ul>
  39. 57. <ul><li>When students are being bothered by peers, they use 3-steps by: </li></ul><ul><li>telling peers “stop! I don’t like that,” </li></ul><ul><li>ignoring or walking away from peers if they do not stop, </li></ul><ul><li>informing the teacher that they told them to stop, tried to ignore them, and are now seeking the teachers help. </li></ul>