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20. Principi e linee guida (II)

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Slides dalle lezioni del corso di Interazione Uomo Macchina per il corso di laurea in Informatica - Università di Milano Bicocca - Prof.R.Polillo (a.a.2014-15) - Lezione del 12 maggio 2015

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20. Principi e linee guida (II)

  1. 1. Corso di Interazione Uomo Macchina AA 2014-2015 Roberto Polillo Corso di laurea in Informatica Università di Milano Bicocca Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemistica e Comunicazione PRINCIPI E LINEE GUIDA (II) Edizione 2014-15
  2. 2. Queste slides… … si basano sul libro “Facile da usare”, dell’autore, dove si trovano tutte le necessarie spiegazioni. Vedi www.rpolillo.it Queste slide sono disponibili con licenza Creative Commons (attribuzione, non commerciale, condividi allo stesso modo) a chiunque desiderasse utilizzarle, per esempio a scopo didattico, senza necessità di preventiva autorizzazione: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/it/deed.it La licenza non si estende alle immagini fotografiche e alle screen shots, i cui diritti restano in capo ai rispettivi proprietari, che sono stati indicati, ove possibile, nelle didascalie del libro. L’autore si scusa per eventuali omissioni, e resta a disposizione per correggerle. 2
  3. 3. I 7 principi del dialogo secondo la ISO 9241-110:2006 3 1. Adeguatezza al compito 2. Autodescrizione 3. Conformità alle aspettative dell’utente 4. Adeguatezza all’apprendimento 5. Controllabilità 6. Tolleranza verso gli errori 7. Adeguatezza alla individualizzazione R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  4. 4. I 7 principi del dialogo secondo la ISO 9241-110:2006 4 1. Adeguatezza al compito 2. Autodescrizione 3. Conformità alle aspettative dell’utente 4. Adeguatezza all’apprendimento 5. Controllabilità 6. Tolleranza verso gli errori 7. Adeguatezza alla individualizzazione R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 Il dialogo corrisponde alle necessità dell’utente, prevedibili in base al contesto e a convenzioni comunemente accettate
  5. 5. Conformità alle aspettative, in pratica Nel nostro progetto, abbiamo applicato in pratica questo principio… … nell’esaminare attentamente termini e frasi utilizzate … nell’usare lo stesso modello di interazione in tutte le fasi dell’applicazione (coerenza) … nel seguire le linee guida del particolare device utilizzato … nell’usare font, forme grafiche e colori in modo coerente in tutta l’applicazioneR.Polillo - Marzo 2015 5
  6. 6. Conformità alle aspettative: aspetti 6  Linguaggio familiare  Aderenza alle convenzioni  Organizzazione abituale  Dialogo consistente  Tempi di risposta conformi alle aspettative  Feedback conforme alle aspettative  Messaggi adeguati al contesto  Output in posizione appropriata  Input in posizione attesa  Stile dei messaggi coerente R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  7. 7. Coerenza con modalità di interazione diffuse R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 7
  8. 8. Aderenza alle convenzioni 8 R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  9. 9. Es. di incoerenza: menu che si trasformano 9 R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  10. 10. 1. PowerPoint 2007 2. Word 2007 3. Excel 2007 21 3 10 R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  11. 11. Tempi di risposta conformi alle aspettative 11 R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  12. 12. Messaggi in posizione appropriata 12 R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  13. 13. 13 R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  14. 14. Input in posizione attesa 14 Da Word 2007 R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  15. 15. I 7 principi del dialogo secondo la ISO 9241-110:2006 15 1. Adeguatezza al compito 2. Autodescrizione 3. Conformità alle aspettative dell’utente 4. Adeguatezza all’apprendimento 5. Controllabilità 6. Tolleranza verso gli errori 7. Adeguatezza alla individualizzazione R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 Il dialogo supporta e guida l’utente nell’apprendiment o del sistema
  16. 16. Novizio Principiante Competente Esperto L’evoluzione dell’utente 16R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  17. 17. Bassa soglia di apprendimento R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 17
  18. 18. Adeguatezza all’apprendimento: alcuni aspetti  Aiuto alla familiarizzazione  Bassa soglia di apprendimento  Feedback intermedi  Sperimentazione sicura  Modello concettuale evidente R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 18
  19. 19. R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 Aiuto alla familiarizzazione digg.com dopo la registrazione
  20. 20. Aiuto alla familiarizzazione R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 20 vimeo.com (nelle faq)
  21. 21. Aiuto online: tipi di help 1. A che cosa serve questo? 2. Che cosa devo fare ora? 3. Dov’è questo comando? 1. Come faccio per ottenere questo risultato? 2. Spiegami questo argomento R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 21
  22. 22. Help: esempi R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 22 flickr.com (vecchia app) “What’s this? help”
  23. 23. R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 23 Help: a che cosa serve questo?
  24. 24. R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 24 Help: i comandi “nascosti”
  25. 25. R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 25 Help: che cosa devo fare ora?
  26. 26. Tutorials R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 26
  27. 27. R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 Aiuto alla familiarizzazione twitter.com (Tips)
  28. 28. Χ Bassa soglia di apprendimento R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 Da PowerPoint 2007
  29. 29. Bassa soglia di apprendimento R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 29 Da PowerPoint 2007
  30. 30. Feedback intermedi 30 www.trenitalia.itR.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  31. 31. Sperimentazione sicura  Ogni azione reversibile senza problemi (oppure, segnalazione preventiva) R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 31
  32. 32. Modello concettuale evidente R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 32
  33. 33. I 7 principi del dialogo secondo la ISO 9241-110:2006 33 1. Adeguatezza al compito 2. Autodescrizione 3. Conformità alle aspettative dell’utente 4. Adeguatezza all’apprendimento 5. Controllabilità 6. Tolleranza verso gli errori 7. Adeguatezza alla individualizzazione R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 L’utente è in grado di iniziare e tenere sotto controllo la direzione e i tempi dell’interazione fino al raggiungimento dell’obbiettivo
  34. 34. Controllabilità, in pratica Nel nostro progetto, abbiamo applicato in pratica questo principio… … nell’attenzione “spasmodica” alla fluidità della navigazione (comando back sempre presente, pagina home come “porto sicuro”) … eliminando fasi del dialogo che si possono svolgere una sola volta, all’inizio (!) … eliminando Q&A controllate dal sistema R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 34
  35. 35. Q&A controllate dal sistema: esempio R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 35 (1) Patient’s name: (first-last) **FRED SMITH (2) Sex: **MALE (3) Age: **55 (4) Have you been able to obtain positive cultures from a site at which Fred Smith has an infection? **YES (5) What is the infection? **PRIMARY-BACTEREMIA (6) Please give the date and approximate time when signs of symptoms first appeared (Mycin)
  36. 36. Controllabilità: aspetti 36  Tempi dell’interazione controllati dall’utente  Proseguimento del dialogo controllato dall’utente  Punto di ripartenza controllato dall’utente  Disponibilità di undo  Disponibilità dei dati originali R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  37. 37. Punto di ripartenza controllato dall’utente R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 37
  38. 38. I 7 principi del dialogo secondo la ISO 9241-110:2006 38 1. Adeguatezza al compito 2. Autodescrizione 3. Conformità alle aspettative dell’utente 4. Adeguatezza all’apprendimento 5. Controllabilità 6. Tolleranza verso gli errori 7. Adeguatezza alla individualizzazione R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 Nonostante evidenti errori negli input, i risultati desiderati possono essere ottenuti senza o con minime azioni correttive
  39. 39. Tolleranza verso gli errori: aspetti 39  Aiuto all’utente  Prevenzione di azioni non lecite  Spiegazione dell’errore  Recupero dell’errore  Correzioni automatiche  Possibilità di correzione differita  Spiegazioni aggiuntive  Verifica e convalida dei dati  Minimo sforzo di correzione  Richieste di conferma R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  40. 40. I 7 principi del dialogo secondo la ISO 9241-110:2006 40 1. Adeguatezza al compito 2. Autodescrizione 3. Conformità alle aspettative dell’utente 4. Adeguatezza all’apprendimento 5. Controllabilità 6. Tolleranza verso gli errori 7. Adeguatezza alla individualizzazione R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 L'utente può modificare l’interazione e la presentazione dell’informazione per adattarle alle proprie necessità e capacità individuali
  41. 41. Adeguatezza alla individualizzazione: aspetti  Adattamento al profilo dell’utente  Scelta di rappresentazioni alternative  Scelta del livello delle spiegazioni  Vocabolario personalizzabile  Personalizzazione dei tempi di risposta  Scelta del metodo di interazione  Personalizzazione del dialogo  Ripristinabilità dei valori precedenti R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 41
  42. 42. Scelta di rappresentazioni alternative R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 42 MacOS Finder 10.6
  43. 43. R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 43 MacOS Finder 10.6 Scelta di rappresentazioni alternative
  44. 44. Vocabolario personalizzabile R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 44 Ning, 2009
  45. 45. Scelta del metodo d’interazione R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 45
  46. 46. 46 Microsoft Word 2008 per Mac R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  47. 47. Personalizzazione dei tempi di risposta R.Polillo - Marzo 2015 47 MacOS Finder 10.6
  48. 48. Personalizzazione del dialogo 48 Microsoft Word 2008 per Mac R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  49. 49. Un “modello di qualità” 49 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 Adeguatezza al compito Auto-descrizione Conformità alle aspettative dell’utente Adeguatezza all’apprendimento Controllabilità Tolleranza verso gli errori Adeguatezza alla individualizzazione R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  50. 50. Confronto 50 R.Polillo - Marzo 2015
  51. 51. Le euristiche di Nielsen 1. Visibilità dello stato del sistema 2. Corrispondenza fra il mondo reale e il sistema 3. Libertà e controllo da parte degli utenti 4. Consistenza e standard 5. Prevenzione degli errori 6. Riconoscere piuttosto che ricordare 7. Flessibilità ed efficienza d’uso 8. Design minimalista ed estetico 9. Aiutare gli utenti a riconoscere gli errori, diagnosticarli e correggerli 10. Guida e documentazione (Vedi J.Nielsen, How to conduct a Heuristi Evaluation, in http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_evaluation.html ) 51R.Polillo - Marzo 2015

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