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Sterlite pollution and impacts

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STERLITE INDUSTRY, TUTICORIN - HISTORY, CONSEQUENCES, POLLUTION ISSUES AND VARIOUS IMPACTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Publicado en: Medio ambiente
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Sterlite pollution and impacts

  1. 1. STERLITE COPPER INDUSTRY POLLUTION AND ITS IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENT PREPARED BY R.SHUNMUGA PRIYA ANNA UNIVERSITY - CEG
  2. 2. OVERVIEW ӿ The Tuticorin facility – 1996 - located approximately 15 kilometers inland from the port of Tuticorin ӿ India’s largest copper smelters based on production volume ӿ Although it has many economical contributions and financial benefits for the country, the local residents are seeing it as a greatest health hazard and say it is crucial for the local economy and farmers. ӿ Thus from the beginning in 1996 itself the company facing various issues, protests etc… ӿ As the Sterlite industry now got its permission from the government to extend its factory twice as present today, it would be a great risk for the future generation if the rules and regulations are not followed properly by the industries as now. ӿ The various impacts are discussed in this paper
  3. 3. STERLITE INDUSTRY Unit of the Sesa Sterlite Limited largest non–ferrous metals and mining company fastest growing private sector India’s leading copper producer principal subsidiary of Vedanta Resources
  4. 4. BENEFITS EMPLOYS 4,000 & SUPPORTS MANY JOBS INDIRECTLY. 3% TAMILNADU GDP 44% INDIAN COPPER SUPPLY WORLD’S 7TH LARGEST COPPER PRODUCER 2ND IN INDIA FOR PHOSPHORIC ACID PRODUCTION 3RD IN INDIA FOR SULPHURIC ACID PRODUCTION
  5. 5. MAIN PRODUCTS COPPER CATHODE Copper wire bars, bus bars, billets, ingots, moulds Copper based alloys & downstrea m products Copper tubes, strips and foils CONTINUOUS CAST RODS (CCR) Telephone cables, communica tion cables and power cables Magnetic wires, winding wires & automobile wire harness House wiring and transformers and conductors
  6. 6. BY PRODUCTS DORE PHOSPHORIC ACID SULPHURIC ACID FERRO SANDHYDRO FLUORO SILICIC ACID GYPSUM SLIME
  7. 7. METHODOLOGY
  8. 8. S.NO. TECHNOLOGY PURPOSE 1 IsaProcess™ from MIM, Australia In Copper smelting technology 2 CS 3000 Distributed Control System of Yokogawa, Japan Controls the entire Copper Smelter. 3 Advance Process Control (APC) Implemented to control critical factors like Bath temperature and Lance height control 4 absorption process known as DCDA In sulphuric acid plant 5 Hemi-dihydrate (HDH) Process In phosphoric acid plant 6 IsaProcess™ technology Process anode in refineries 7 Continuus Properzi, Italy Maintain optimum level of molten metal 8 ASARCO technology, USA Cathodes are melted in a vertical shaft furnace
  9. 9. PHOSPHORIC ACID USED IN FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING PHOSPHORIC ACID IS ALSO USED IN MAKING ANIMAL FEEDS LIKE DI- CALCIUM PHOSPHATE (DCP) AND MONO DIBASIC CALCIUM PHOSPHATE (MDCP). SULPHURIC ACID WIDELY USED INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL MANUFACTURE OF FERTILIZERS AND PHOSPHORIC ACID IMPORTANT INPUT IN THE MINING, OIL REFINING, PULP AND PAPER, DETERGENT MANUFACTURING AND STEEL INDUSTRIES MAJOR BYPRODUCTS AND ITS APPLICATION
  10. 10. FERRO SAND PAVER BLOCKS AND BRICKS manufacturing process – 25% Replacement of fine aggregate CONCRETE APPLICATIONS – Ferro Sand can replace river sand in fine aggregate up to 50% PHOSPHO GYPSUM used in Cement Industries, Brick Manufacturers and Plaster of Paris manufacturing economical and quality SUBSTITUTE FOR NATURAL GYPSUM widely used in FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS FOR SOIL RECLAMATION SAND / LANDFILLING – 100% replacement & best alternative option for gravel/ red soil/ river sand ROAD APPLICATION – Replacement of fine aggregates up to 20%
  11. 11. Earlier 1994 • MAHARASHTRA- ALPHONSO MANGO- REJECTED- AFTER COPPER FACTORY - PUBLIC STARTED PROTEST - SHUT DOWN PERMANENTLY • AFTER THEY WENT TO GUJARAT, GOA – BUT NOT ALLOWED Later 1994 • ENTER TAMIL NADU IN THE TUTICORIN DISTRICT - AT FIRST ACCEPTED • WHEN RECOGNIZED THE IMPACTS - PROTEST AGAINST THE CLOSURE OF THE COMPANY STARTED 1996 • SUPREME COURT GIVEN PERMISSION TO RUN THE COMPANY DESPITE OF THE PUBLIC CONCERNS
  12. 12. 2005 • 2005 GOVERNMENT STUDY FOUND THE LEVELS OF ARSENIC IN GROUND WATER NEAR THE SITE WERE EIGHT TIMES THOSE RECOMMENDED BY THE WHO 2009 • EXPANDED THE 400 KTPA BROWNFIELD COPPER SMELTER TO 800 KTPA. • THE NEW SMELTER USES THE ISA SMELT TECHNOLOGY - CURRENTLY USED September 28, 2010 • NATIONAL TRUST FOR CLEAN ENVIRONMENT’ FILED THE FIRST WRIT PETITION AGAINST THE GRANTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE TO STERLITE INDUSTRIES • WITHIN 15 KMS OF ECOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE AND PROHIBITED AREA
  13. 13. September 29, 2010 • MADRAS HIGH COURT ORDERED IMMEDIATE CLOSURE OF THE PLANT FOR VIOLATING VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND CAUSING POLLUTION • ALSO TO TAKE ALL NECESSARY STEPS FOR RE-EMPLOYMENT OF THE WORKFORCE September 30, 2010 • APPROACHED THE SUPREME COURT TO STAY THE MADRAS HIGH COURT'S ORDER CLOSING ITS COPPER SMELTER PLANT IN TUTICORIN • THE COMPANY HAS FILED A REVIEW PETITION IN THE HIGH COURT SEEKING THREE WEEKS TIME TO IMPLEMENT ITS ORDER March 24, 2013 • VILLAGERS LIVING CLOSE TO STERLITE COPPER INDIA LIMITED COMPLAINED OF BREATHING DIFFICULTY, VOMITING AND EYE IRRITATION, GIVING RISE TO SUSPICION OF A SULPHUR DIOXIDE LEAK FROM THE COPPER SMELTING PLANT • PLANT – SHUT DOWN FOR TWO MONTHS – ON TNPCB ORDER
  14. 14. June 17, 2013 • RESUMED OPERATIONS AFTER THE NATIONAL GREEN TRIBUNAL'S (NGT) EXPERT PANEL GAVE A GREEN SIGNAL • TNPCB THEN MOVED THE SUPREME COURT SEEKING QUASHING OF THE GREEN PANEL'S ORDER BUT THE APEX COURT REFUSED TO STAY THE NGT ORDER May 2011 • NEERI SUBMITTED A REPORT TO THE SUPREME COURT. • AGAINST A REQUIREMENT OF 176 HECTARES FOR THE 1200 TONNE PLANT, STERLITE HAD ONLY 102.5 HECTARES • ALSO, LESS THAN 13 HECTARES – AS AGAINST 43 HECTARES – HAD BEEN GREENED. 2017 • THE STERLITE INDUSTRY NOW GOT ITS PERMISSION FROM THE GOVERNMENT TO EXTEND ITS FACTORY TWICE AS PRESENT TODAY • PROTEST AGAINST THE CLOSURE OF THE COMPANY IS STILL GOING ON
  15. 15. IMPACT ON SOIL USES HIGHLY CONTAMINATED IMPORTED COPPER CONCENTRATES BYPRODUCT SLAG - DUMP - 300TONNES/DAY IN TUTICORIN USES THE SLAG - EXTENT - RAILWAY STATION PLATFORM MOUNTAIN OF PHOSPHOR- GYPSUM- AIRBORNE - RESPIRATORY DISEASES 1000 TONNES OF ARSENIC- CONTAINING SLAG DUMPED -FACTORY PREMISES NO ADEQUATE FACILITIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT A toxic hotspot - Dangerous levels of iron and arsenic - found in the soil
  16. 16. EMITS SULPHUR DIOXIDE, ARSENIC AND HEAVY METALS SO2 GAS LEAK -SUFFOCATION AND BURNING EYES 2013 – LEAK - AFFECTED THOUSANDS - LEADING TO MASS PROTESTS AND THE TEMPORARY CLOSURE OF THE PLANT. SO2 - shot up from 20 ug/m³ to 62 ug/m³ (tolerable limit of 80 ug/m³ ) IMPACT ON AIR
  17. 17. HUGE AMOUNTS USED - WATER- STRESSED AREA TONNES OF Cu SLAG - DUMPED IN ODAI RIVER - UPPER STREAM - BLOCKED WITH TOXIC Cu SLAG GROUND WATER POLLUTED BY H2SO4 AND OTHER WASTE HIGHER CD, CR, CU AND PB IN SOME WELLS CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO IRON IN DRINKING WATER - CHRONIC FATIGUE, JOINT & ABDOMINAL PAIN IMPACT ON WATER
  18. 18. LEAKAGE OF SO2 - LEAVES – COLOUR CHANGE & DRIED OFF HEAVY METALS DISPOSAL SPOILS CULTIVATABLE LANDS HORSES, GOATS AND SHEEP - EXPOSED - TOXIC CONCENTRATION OF COPPER AND LEAD IN GRASS IMPACT ON BIOSPHERE
  19. 19. BIOACCUMULATION - LEAD TO POISONING RAIN + SO2 - DAMAGE TO CROPS, TREES AND BUILDINGS FOR MANY MILES DOWN-WIND DECREASED POPULATION OF CATTLE, GOATS, COWS - EXPOSURE TO AIR AND WATER POLLUTION
  20. 20. ACUTE TOXIC EFFECTS - MORTALITY OF ORGANISMS CHRONIC TOXICITY - REDUCTIONS IN SURVIVAL, REPRODUCTION, AND GROWTH HIGHER COPPER ARE TOXIC IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS RESTRICTION - LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES TO PRESERVE THE BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY - GULF OF MANNAR ADVERSELY AFFECT FISH, INVERTEBRATES, PLANTS, AND AMPHIBIANS IMPACT ON MARINE ECOSYSTEM
  21. 21. SKIN PROBLEMS RESPIRATORY ILLNESS INCREASED CANCER RATES INFERTILITY LOCAL NGOS STUDY - NUMBER OF PERSONS AFFECTED - BRONCHIAL DISEASES AND CANCER - INCREASING EVERY YEAR LONG TERM IMPACTS ARE UNIMAGINABLE EYE AND THROAT IRRITATION BITTER TASTE IN MOUTH OF CHILDREN FAINTING HEADACHE LABOUR FORCE TO WORK AMIDST POISONOUS GAS & NOXIOUS EFFLUENTS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH
  22. 22. RAINFALL IS NOT PROPER AND ADEQUATE ACCOUNTED FOR THE INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE AND REDUCED RAINFALL IN THOOTHUKUDI REGION SOME SORT OF CHEMICAL - SPRAYED TO CLOUDS WHEN THEY ARE ABOVE TO SEND THEIR DROPLET – TO DISPERSE THE CLOUDS (TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO CHIMNEY)
  23. 23. SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPACTS VIOLATIONS OF LAWS AND REGULATION INCREASE IN CORRUPTION SINCE 20 YEARS STERLITE HAS BEEN BLAMED FOR NUMEROUS MISHAPS, DEATHS AND INJURIES VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS
  24. 24. CONCLUSION  Industrial disposals enter waterways - may persist - long periods & transported by water or air over long distances.  They disturbed the function of the endocrine system - in reproductive, developmental, and behavioural problems.  The GOs and NGOs should take effective steps to clean and green the streets, schools, public safety, etc.  Copper production = 4lakh tonnes/year » In ore only 30% copper is present and 30%Iron then 30%sulphur remaining some Arsenic ,Silver,Gold in a very little amount. So compare to production out of 100% they can produce only 30% copper metal and remainings are slag(Ironsilicates) and toxic gases  Therefore, an appropriate forum like scientists, academicians, policy makers and panchayat raj institutions should take effective step to protect the environment in all aspects.
  25. 25. REFERENCES Newspaper articles from “THE HINDU” and “TIMES OF INDIA” A. Agrawal et al. / Resources, Conservation and Recycling 42 (2004) 99–120 Vishwanathan M. Integrated pollution control and waste management in copper base processing industries. Bandopadhyay A, Goswami N, Environmental waste management in non ferrous metallurgical industries. Premchand, Agrawal A, Gorai B, Pandey BD, Sahoo KL, Ghosh S. Characterisation and utilisation of copper slag of sterlite Industries Ltd. Jamshedpur: NML; 2001 (Internal Report) The Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) official notifications and orders Sustainable development report 2012-2013, Stertite Industries (India) Limited The Anti-Sterlite Peoples Struggle Committee released a booklet titled 'Doctors Speak Out'
  26. 26. THANK YOU

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