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1. Regional powerbase, selfish interests, military over civilian power, 2. Jerome Chen 3.He tried to make himself emperor suggesting community with previous regimes, Beiyung army was less regional than Taiping armies, 4. Stephen MacKinnon 5. personal rule, 6. Reaction against the Warlord era leads to eventual reunification, as a time of experimentation and pluralism (if unstable pluralism)
Note: Kuomindang or Guomindang
After founding of Whampoa, GMD becomes a military organisation, branches of Whampoa extended to other nationalist areas such as Nanjing, Chengdu, Q4
Gmd lesson outline
The GMD/KMT :Leadership, Ideology, Policies Learning Objective: To explainhow GMD policies were connected to ideologyRelevant readings: Lynch pg 41-44
Starter: Warlord Era Recap 1. Was Yuan Shikai the first warlord? Argument for x2 2. Historian saying Yuan Shikai was the first warlord? 3. Argument that Yuan Shikai was not the first warlord? X2 4. Historian saying Warlord era no connection to previous Taiping armies 5. Describe the Warlord era in 3 words 6. How could the Warlord era be interpreted in a more positive light?
In 1911, Sun Yat-sen had been briefly president before abdicating in favour of Yuan Shikai Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yixian) • Founded Kuomindang (KMT) – Nationalist party • Benefits from May 4th Movement • Reforms the party in 1919 • Outlines 3 principles of the people in speech at Guangzhou in 1923
Q1 Sun Yat Sen’s 1923 Guangzhou politicalideology can best be expressed by? 1. Reunification, sovereign state, people’s welfare, military power, nationalist 2. Military power, reunification 3. Reunification, nationalism 4.
Bookpublished by Sun Yat-sen before his death in 1925 1. Principle of Mínquán Democracy – the people are sovereign 2. Principle of Mínzú Nationalism – an end to foreign imperialism 3. Principle of Mínshē ng Livelihood – economic development, industrialization, land reform, and social welfare – elements of progressivism and socialism
Q2 How can Sun’s reorganisation ofthe GMT be best described? 1.Discussion with regional leaders 2.revolution, military reform, diplomacy 3.Regional leaders, links to Soviet Regime 4. Builds up financial base, emphasis on military power, cooperation with regional leaders, Soviets and CCP,
Reforming the KMT/GMD Key Points Develops financial structure Creation of the Whampoa military academy 1924 (and other branches in Nanjing and Chengdu) SYS travels to see regional leaders several times- prelude to reunification Chiang Kai-Shek is a product both of Soviet training and Whampoa Cooperation with Comintern Cooperation with CCP and membership of both parties allowed BUT leadership structures kept apart so communist leaders NOT given leadership role in Nationalist party