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Transactional analysis

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structural analysis,transactional analysis , game analysis and script analysis

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Transactional analysis

  1. 1. ERICBERNE BY SABITHACK Assistant professor Cutec,nattika
  2. 2.  Proposed by the Canadian psychologist Eric Berne (1910-70) in his 1964 book 'Games People Play  Berne's theory was based on the ideas of Freud but was distinctly different.  Dr. Berne defined Transactional Analysis is the method for studying interactions between individuals
  3. 3.  According to TA, a transaction is a stimulus plus a response.  For example, if you say to one of your student, "You really did a good job on that project" that is stimulus: and he says, "Thanks", that is a response. Thus, transactions take place between people.
  4. 4.  The theory outlines how we have developed and treat ourselves, how we relate and communicate with others, and offers suggestions and interventions which will enable us to change and grow
  5. 5.  In addition to the analysis of the interactions between individuals, Transactional Analysis also involves the identification of the ego states behind each and every transaction. Berne defined an ego state as “a consistent pattern of feeling and experience directly related to a corresponding consistent pattern of behavior.”4
  6. 6.  Transactional analysis involves four types of analysis namely  Structural analysis  Transactional analysis  Game analysis  script
  7. 7.  Structural analysis speak of the psychological structure of personality which comprises of a group of ego states namely  1. the parent ego state,  2.adult ego state and  3.child ego state
  8. 8.  The personality of a person is the collection of behaviour patterns developed over a period of time.  these behaviour patterns are evolved in differing degrees from three ego states - Parent, Adult and Child.  a parent (mother or father) has parent, adult and child ego states; and a child (son or daughter) also has parent, adult and child ego states.
  9. 9.  The parent ego state is a result of the "messages" (conditioning) people receive from their parents, elder sisters and brothers, school teachers and others during their childhood  the majority of the external events experienced by a child are actions of the parent, the ego state was appropriately called Parent.  events perceived by the child from individuals that are NOT parents (but who are often in parent-like roles) are also recorded in the Parent.  Examples of recordings in the Parent include:  “Never talk to strangers”  “Always chew with your mouth closed”  “Look both ways before you cross the street”
  10. 10.  There are two kinds of Parent ego states :  (i) Nurturing Parent and  (ii) Critical parent.  The Nurturing parent is that part of a person which is understanding and caring about other people. Behaviour coming from the nurturing parent may set limits on and provide direction for people behaviour. It will not put the people down and make then feel not OK as individual.
  11. 11.  Critical parent behaviour attacks people's personalities as well as their behaviour.  Critical parent makes people feel that they are not OK.  When people are in their critical parent ego state they are very evaluative and judgmental.  They are always ready to respond with a 'should' or 'ought' to almost anything people tell them.
  12. 12.  The Adult ego state evokes behaviour that could be described simply as logical, reasonable, rationale and unemotional.  Behaviour from the adult ego state is characterized by problem solving analysis and rationale decision-making.  .
  13. 13.  People operating from the adult ego state are taking emotional content of their child ego state, the value-laden content of their parent ego state and checking them out in the reality of the external world.  These people are examining alternatives, probabilities and values prior to engaging in behaviour
  14. 14.  The child ego state is associated with behaviours that appear when a person is responding emotionally.  A person's child contains the 'natural' impulses and attitudes learned from child experiences.  the Child represents the recordings in the brain of internal events associated with external events the child perceives.
  15. 15.  , recordings in the Child occur from childbirth all the way up to the age of approximately 5 years old.  “There are several forms of the child ego state. However, two kinds of ego states viz. happy child and destructive child are commonly relevant in behaviour
  16. 16.  People behaving from their happy child are doing things they want to do it but it is not destructive to others.  people in their destructive child are also doing things but their behaviour is either destructive to others or to themselves, or to their environment
  17. 17.  The three ego states are usually diagrammed as shown in figure below:.
  18. 18.   PARENT EGO(p)  ADULT EGO (A)   CHILD EGO STATE(C) P A C
  19. 19. A structural diagram represents the complete personality of any individual. It includes the Parent, Adult, and Child ego states, all separate and distinct from each other. The diagram was developed by Eric
  20. 20.  The application of ego state model to analyze sequence of transaction is called transactional analysis.  is attempted to determine correctly is the ego state in which each individual is at that moment.  When two individual confront each other, the number of ego state involved in transactional situation will be three plus three ie,six
  21. 21.  Ego state of one may act as transactional stimulus and ego state of other person may be act as transactional response.  Transaction consist of two or more component of behaviour known as strokes eg:-hellow,hi
  22. 22. P A C P A C INTERACTION STIMULUS RESPONSE
  23. 23.  Berne identifies three types of transactions:  1. Complementary Transactions  2.Crossed transaction  3.Ulterior transaction
  24. 24.  In a complementary transaction, the response must go back from the receiving ego state to the sending ego state.
  25. 25. p C P A C A
  26. 26.  According to Dr. Berne, these transactions are healthy and represent normal human interactions.  As Berne says in Games People Play “communication will proceed as long as transactions are complementary.”9
  27. 27.  Examples of Complementary Transactions Parent-Parent, Adult-Adult, Child-Child, Child-Parent, Parent-Child, Child-Adult, Adult-Child, Adult-Parent, Parent-Adult  First Rule of Communication We have the first rule of communication in TA : "When TS and TR on the P-A-C diagram make parallel lines, the transaction can go on indefinitely."
  28. 28. p C P A C A
  29. 29.  When two people communicate, one person initiates a transaction with the transactional stimulus . The person at whom the stimulus is directed will respond with the transactional response. Simple Transactional Analysis involves identifying which ego state directed the stimulus and which ego state in the other person executed the response
  30. 30.  According to Dr. Berne, the simplest transactions are between Adults ego states.
  31. 31.  healthy person has a personality that maintains a balance among all three – according to Abewagner, "Nurturing Parent, Adult and Happy Child". This means that these people are able to lead the adult ego state take over and think very rationally and engage in problem solving
  32. 32.  A crossed transaction is one in which the sender sends a message, a behaviour, on the basis of his ego state but the response is from the unexpected ego state of the respondent.
  33. 33. p C P A C A
  34. 34.  Examples of Crossed Transactions Adult-Adult and Parent-Child; Adult-Adult and Child- Parent; Parent-Child and Parent-Child; Child- Parent and Child-Parent
  35. 35.  Here we have the second rule of communication in TA: "When TS and TR in the P-A-C diagram cross each other, communication stops."
  36. 36.  There is a social and an ulterior level transaction. The social level is a socially acceptable stimulus, for example, do you know what time it is? Ulterior transactions are by definition out of the person’s awareness... it is an unconscious process.
  37. 37.  In an ulterior transaction, two messages are conveyed at the same time. One of these is an overt or social level message. The other is a covert or psychological level message. • Most often, the social level content is Adult- Adult. The psychological level messages are usually either Parent –Child or Child –Parent.
  38. 38. p C P A C A
  39. 39.  The ulterior transaction is shown as a broken line in the transactional diagram and the meaning will be made clear to the receiver by the use of non-verbal language clues... a wagging finger for example along with a stern look will usually mean a Parent > Child ulterior.
  40. 40.  Berne says that we can communicate on two levels. There is the social message – what we say, and the psychological message – what we mean. Sometimes the two things do not match.  Ulterior transactions can be of two types angular and duplex 
  41. 41.  Angular transaction involves three ego states. Salesmen are particularly adapt this kind of transaction. They convey their message in social level as Adult ego-state, but it contains a hidden psychological message intending the Child ego-state of the customer.
  42. 42. p C P A C A
  43. 43.  This is a two level transaction in which beyond the obvious transaction, there is a hidden transaction between the two ego states of the persons concerned. A duplex transaction involves four ego states and is commonly seen among college students. (the hidden or psychological transactions are always represented by doted arrows.)
  44. 44. p C P A C A
  45. 45.  : The meaning of the communication will always be at the ulterior level.
  46. 46.  Keep transactions complementary  Avoid crossed transactions  Beware of ulterior transactions
  47. 47.  An ongoing series of complementary ulterior transactions progressing to a well defined ,predictable outcome can be conceived as a game  A game involves a recurring set of transactions  – repeating sequences of transactions that lead to a result subconsciously agreed to by the parties involved in the game
  48. 48.  This transaction may involve a concealed motive or gimmick.  Eric Bern speaks of three ways of analyzing such games  1.transactional approach  2.formula G  3.karpman triangle
  49. 49.  Ulterior quality of the transactions and the final ‘pay off’ are brought to light. P AA C P A C
  50. 50.  Berne discovered that every game goes through a sequence of six stages.  Con+gimmick=response switch cross up Pay off.  C + G = R > S > X > P  He called this sequence formula G or game formula  Con=it is delivered non verbally. (Con: A invites B to join in a game that seems worthwhile but has an ulterior motive).
  51. 51. Gimmick=it is a concealed motive, or a series of motive with a snare.(Gimmick: B has a weakness or need that makes them respond to the Con) This now leads to the sequence:  Response=this stage of game consist of a series of the social level, these transactions seen like straight forward exchange of information. but at psychological level they repeat the con-gimmick exchange that opened the game(Response: B responds to A's invitation.)
  52. 52.  Switch=this happens when one player changes his role(Switch: A suddenly shifts, making a switch of some kinds.)  Cross up=the confusion happening during the change of role is cross up (Crossup (X): There is a period of confusion)  Pay off=both players collect their payoff of racket feeling(Payoff) The final result is that both experience negative emotion.
  53. 53.  Berne's example of this is:  Con: Patient asks therapist if they will get better.  Gimmick: Therapist does not want the patient to believe they may not get better.  Response: Therapist says 'Of course you will'.  Switch: Patient gets antagonistic, saying 'What makes you think you know everything?'  Cross up: Therapist is thrown off balance. Patient feels a sense of control.  Payoff: Therapist feels foolish to have been tricked by a patient. Patient feels frustrated that therapist cannot help them.
  54. 54. p C P A C A
  55. 55.  The Karpman Drama Triangle is a game played all too often in relationships.  The game provides people with their identity as Victim, Rescuer, or Persecutor. People generally favour one or two roles.
  56. 56.  When an individual imposes his /her views opinion,etc on another that individual plays the role a persecutor  When an individual exhibit signs of helplessness so that others are tempted to offer help he /she plays the role of victim  when one offers support that is not really need ,that individual plays the role of a rescuer
  57. 57. (V)victim (Ŗ)rescuerPersecutor(р)
  58. 58.  Script is a central part of Transactional analysis theory.  Script can be seen as a well defined course of action that we decide on as a child. 
  59. 59.  The theory states that we experience the world and make decisions about how we need to be in order to survive in it.  Script analysis is the method of uncovering the 'early decisions, made unconsciously, as to how life shall be lived'.[
  60. 60.  A central belief of transactional analysis is that we made the decision in the first place so we have the power to change it. There is always hope that we can do things differently once our script is brought into awareness.  So there it is, the very basics of transactional analysis theory.
  61. 61.  The purpose of script analysis is to aid the client (individual or organizational) to achieve autonomy by recognising the script's influence on values, decisions, behaviors and thereby allowing them to decide against the script.  . Berne describes someone who is autonomous as being 'script free‘ and as a "real person“.
  62. 62.  , scripts can be changed, since they are not inborn, but learned‘.  a life plan that may involve long-term involvement in particular games in order to reach the life pay-off of the individual
  63. 63.  Transactional Analysis constructs four possible life position held with respect to oneself and others. There are four fundamental life positions. They are:  I am not OK - You are OK I am not OK - You are not OK I am OK - You are not OK I am OK - You are Ok
  64. 64.  Life positions works with the assumption that we choose very early on in our life, before the age of 2, a basic attitude towards ourselves and other people.  It represents the fundamental attitude a person takes about the essential value he or she perceives in him or herself and other people.  Once a child has taken up a favourite position, they're likely to construct the rest of their world view to match that life position.
  65. 65.  Our life position is like a set of glasses through which we see the world. If we end up with gray tinted glasses the whole world will look gray to us. If they are clear, we can see ourselves and the world as things are good and bad, but mostly all sorts of colours and shapes.
  66. 66. It shows the four basic life positions we can assume:  1. "I am not ok, you are ok," short for "There is something fundamentally wrong with me, but everybody else is ok.".  This is the universal position of early childhood in social transaction when the child arrives at the logical conclusion that “I am not OK’.  This NOT OK-ness arises from the helplessness of the child. Such people feel inferior when they compare themselves with others.  These people are depressed and withdraw from others.
  67. 67.  "I am not ok, you are not ok," short for "There is something fundamentally wrong with me and other people are unreliable, untrustworthy, wrong in some way too."  Such people become deeply sick and lose interest in living. They might end up in mental hospitals or kill themselves or others.
  68. 68.  3. "I am ok, you are not ok," short for "I am ok, but I can't rely on or trust you. I feel there is something wrong with other people around me." A child who is brutalized by the parents will switch over the third life position, that is : I AM OK – YOU ARE NOT OK.  this as a criminal position as there is every chance for such a child to develop a criminal personality type. Such people feel victimized, and they blame others for their miseries. These people may turn persecutors.
  69. 69.  4. "'I am ok, you are ok," which is short for "I am ok with myself and with you too."  Such people are mentally healthy. This OK position is experienced by children who have received an exposure situation in early life in which they can prove, to themselves, their own worth and the worth of others. In this position, a person recognize that both you and I have worth, value and dignity as people have. People in this position are happy and have intimate relationships.  It's easy to see that the best place to come from is "'I am ok, you are ok!"
  70. 70. I am not ok, you are ok (Therefore the best I can do is to get away from others or hide myself) DEPRESSIVE POSITION I am ok, you are not ok (Therefore I best get rid of you to be ok) PARANOID POSITION (mentally depressed) I am not ok, you are not ok (Therefore there is no hope. I can never be ok nor could you give me what I need) FUTILE POSITION (worthless) I am ok, you are ok (Therefore you and me can get on with being open with each other)
  71. 71.  GOOD LIFE POSITION It is important that you find a way to relate from an "I am ok you are ok" position as much as possible to your partner. And that he or she relates in the same way to you. Only then you are in a place where you can trust and respect yourself and the other person and you can be secure in knowing that you both are committed to working things out together when things get tough.
  72. 72. Thank you
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