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Definition Differences between syrups and elixirs Why do we need elixirs Types of elixirs Method of preparation Advantages and disadvantages Storage
Elixirs are clear sweetened, hydroalcohlicpreparations intended for oral use andusually flavored for palatability. Alcoholic content vary from 10% to 12% andup to 40%.
An elixir must always contain alcohol, whereas asyrup may or may not use an alcohol for solubilitypurposes. Elixirs are meant to always be a clear liquid, whereassyrups can contain various natural or artificial dyes. In general, elixirs are less viscous than syrups due totheir higher alcohol content and their minimal useof sucrose and other viscosity-improving agents. When used as a pharmaceutical preparation, itcontains an active ingredient that is dissolved in asolution that contains some percentage (usually 10-12%) of ethyl alcohol and is designed to be takenorally.
Some drug are insoluble in water so in thiscase we can’t use syrups & suspension. So we have to make a dosage form whichcould dissolve non polar compounds Aid in masking the unpleasant taste of theactive ingredients.
These are simple elixirs that do not containmedicated agents.These only containalcoholsweetening agentcoloring agentthey are self preservingUse as diluent or vehicle
Medicated elixirs are a solution of the activeingredient dissolved in water andan alcohol often along withother excipients such as preservatives.
Primarily used in the symptomatic relife ofallergies . Suppresses symptoms caused by histamine . Brand name: Promethazine Winthrop
Sodium benzoate, sodium sulfate and sodiummetabisulfite.Adverse affects: Dryness of nose ,mouth, throat Dizziness Disturbed concentration Sedation antihistaminic agents are basic amines
The barbiturates are nonselective centralnervous system (CNS) depressants that areprimarily used as sedative-hypnotics. Phenobarbital is along lasting barbituratewith a duration of action of 4-6 hours A usual dose as a sedative of about 30mgand hypnotic dose of about 100mg .
Phenobarbital 4.0g Orange oil 0.25ml Propylene glycol 100ml Alcohol 200ml Sorbitol solution 600ml Color q.s Purified water 1000ml
preventing and treating symptoms andblockage of airway due to asthma or otherlung diseases (emphysema, bronchitis).
Sugar or sugar substitutes like the sugar e.gpolyglycerol or sorbitol. Alcohol. water. Flavoring agents and flavor enhancers. Coloring agents. Although it is self preserving but preservatingagents may be added like parabins.
Often, an elixir has more ingredients thanjust the drug, water and ethanol. elixirs oftencontain glycerin, sorbitol, polyethyleneglycol or syrups These are sweetening agents and canmediate the pharmacological effects of theethanol. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) may be used in anelixir as a substitute for both glycerin andethanol..
Usually ethyl alcohol is used as the alcohol Concentration is about 10 to 12 percent
Elixirs are always sweetened, but rarelycontain sucrose. This is because sucrosemakes a solution much more viscousor thick,an undesirable property in an elixir. Manyother sweetners can be used,including aspartame, carboxymethylcelluloseand its derivatives, saccharin, cyclamate,and acesulfame potassium. However, none ofthese sweetners are considered truly safe; infact, cyclamate and saccharin are banned inseveral countries.
Alcohol soluble and water solublecomponents are generally dissolvedseparately in alcohol and water Aqueous solution is added to the alcoholicsolution, so minimal separation of alcoholsoluble components occurs. Mixture is made up to the volume by thespecific solvent or vehicle. Talc to remove excess amount of oil Filter the preparation.