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Antipsychotic drugs
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  1. 1. ANTIDEPRESSANTS: Depression is one of the most treatable mental illness. Prepared & Presented by SAHARISH KHALIQ(203)
  2. 2. DEPRESSION It is a mental illnesses characterized by pathological changes in mood, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, low energy, and poor concentration . It can be severe and some times Fatal.
  3. 3. Symptoms Depressed mood most of the day… Markedly diminished interest or pleasure Significant weight loss /gain Insomnia or hypersomnia Agitation  Fatigue or loss of energy
  4. 4. Symptoms Change in appetite Lack of concentration Poor self esteem Thought of suicide or death.
  5. 5. Types of Depression Major depression Chronic depression (Dysthymia) Atypical depression Bipolar disorder/Manic depression Seasonal depression (SAD)
  6. 6. Mechanism Of Depression Depression is associated with changes in the level of neurotransmitters in the brain that help nerve cells to communicate.E.x Serotonin,Dopamine,Nor epinephrine The level can be influenced by physical illness,genetics,substance abuse,diet,hormonal chnages, brain injuries or social circumstances.
  7. 7. ANTIDEPRESSANTS Drug which enhance alertness and may result in an increased output of behaviour. Potentiate directly or indirectly the action of • Dopamine • Serotonin • Nor adrenaline The purpose of antidepressants is to increase the neurotransmitters in the synapse.
  8. 8. ANTIDEPRESSANTS They are used for the relief of symptoms of moderate and severe depression. Antidepressants are taken for atleast 4-6 months. They can be used alone or in combination with other medications
  9. 9. Types of Antidepressants  Tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Atypical anti-depressants (Others)
  10. 10. TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS They have been employed in drug therapy since the late 1950s. Largest group of drug agents used for the treatment of depression. Referred as “ tri cyclic ” compounds –three rings.
  11. 11. Properties of TCA Characteristic three ring nucleus.  All are metabolized in liver . High protein binding. High lipid solubility. N N R1 R2 A B C 1 2 37 5 6 8 9 10 11
  12. 12. Classification of TCA Imipramine Amytriptiline Desipramine Nortriptyline Protryptyline Doxepin
  13. 13. MECHANISM OF ACTION Inhibit the re-uptake of neurotransmitters. They inhibit serotonin,nor epinephrine or dopamine reuptake at pre synaptic nerve terminals thus lead to increased concentration of these transmitters in the synaptic cleft.  Takes up to 4 weeks for all TCA antidepressants to have an effect.
  14. 14. Imipramine •Closely related to antipsychotic drug Phenothiazines. Used to treat wide class of depression. It is a prototype drug of class TCA. It is also used to treat nocturnal enuresis. Usual dose 50-150 mg daily.
  15. 15. Therapeutic Uses Severe major depression Phobic and panic anxiety disorders Neuropathic pain Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) Nocturnal enuresis; Imipramine has been used to control bed-wetting in children (older than six years) by causing contraction of the internal sphincter of the bladder.
  16. 16. Adverse Effects  Dry mouth Constipation Blurred vision  Mydriasis  Metallic taste  Urine retention Drowsiness Sedation weight gain
  17. 17. Chemical structures of TCAs Imipramine Amitryptiline
  18. 18. SAR of TCAs N N R1 R2 A B C 1 2 37 5 6 8 9 10 11 Structure of TCAs consist of 7 memebered ring that is linked to 2 benzene rings.Primary or tertiary amine is attached to central ring.  Substituting a halogen or CN (cyano) group in C 3 position of the ring increase potency. Max potency occurs when the basic nitrogen is replaced by propylene bridge. Presence of dimethyl or keto at C10 leads the compound in effective. Double bond between position 10 & 11 increases activity.
  19. 19. Monomethyl amines are more potent than dimethylamines as shown for imipramine and desipramine. Replacement of hetrocyclic N with C,activity is retained. Branching of side chain does not activity of the drug as seen in the case of imipramine and trimipramine.
  20. 20. Cis form is more potent than trans form.
  21. 21. Mono amine oxidase inhibitors Treatment of depression began with the use of MAOIs in 1950’s. These drugs are not widely used today, although a small number of patients appear to do better in MAOIs than TCAs or the newer drugs.
  22. 22. Properties Are readily absorbed from GI tract  Widely distributed throughout the body. May have active metabolites, inactivated by acetylation. Effects persist even after these drugs are no longer detectable in plasma (1-3 weeks)
  23. 23. Classification of MAOIs Phenelzine Isocarboxacid Tranylcypromine
  24. 24. Mechanism of action of MAOIs MAO is a mitochondrial enzyme found in nerve and other tissues. Monoamine oxidase breaks down norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. When monoamine oxidase is inhibited, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine are not broken down, increasing the concentration of all three neurotransmitters in the brain.
  25. 25. MAOIs may reversibly or irreversibly inactivate the enzymes by making stable complexes with the enzymes,permitting neurotransmitter molecules to escape degradation and accumulate within synaptic cleft. This may cause activation of nor epinephrine and serotonin receptors responsible for anti depressant action.
  26. 26. PHENELZINE NH2 H N White powder freely soluble in water.  Insoluble in ethanol. It has low sedative properties.
  27. 27. Therapeutic Uses  Indicated for depressed patients who are unresponsive or allergic to TCAs.  Patient with low psychomotor activity.  Treatment of phobic states
  28. 28. Adverse Effects Drowsiness/Fatigue Constipation Nausea Diarrhea Dizziness Low blood pressure Lightheadedness, Decreased urine output Sleep disturbances
  29. 29. Chemical structures of MAOIs CH3 N O O H N N H CH3 CH3 H N N H O N NH2 H N Isocarboxazide Phenelzine Iproniazid
  30. 30. SAR of MAOIs Electron withdrawing groups increase potency. Some MAOIs are related to Amphetamine. Cyclization of side chain of Amphetamine results in Tranylcypromine. TRANYLCYPROMINE
  31. 31. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors A group of chemically unique drugs More modern group of drugs in use.  1st drug fluoxetine available in 1988.  Safest antidepressant for use.
  32. 32. Properties Good absorption after oral administration Important biotransformation in the liver Long half-lives of elimination(s)  fluoxetine (T1/2=50h) Drug mostly excreted from kidney. Few drugs are excreted from feaces.
  33. 33. Mechanism of action Inhibition of serotonin reuptake into the presynaptic cell, increasing the level of serotonin leading to greater post synaptic neuronal activity. They do not have significant effect on Nor epinephrine & Dopamine. They typically take 2 to 12 weeks to produce improvement in mood.
  34. 34. Classification of SSRIs  Fluoxetine Sertraline Paroxetine Fluvoxamine Escitalopram
  35. 35. Fluoxetine White crystalline powder Soluble in methanol sparingly  soluble in water. Treatment of endogenous  depression. Usual dose 20-80 mg daily
  36. 36. Therapeutic Uses  Depression  Obsessive compulsive disorder (the only indication for fluvoxamine )  Panic disorder  Generalized anxiety  Premenstrual dysphoric disorder  Bulimia nervosa (only fluoxetine is approved for this last indication)
  37. 37. Adverse Effects Anxiety Insomnia Agitation Sexual dysfunction. Weight gain.
  38. 38. Chemical structure of SSRIs Fluoxetine Hcl Sertraline Escitalopram
  39. 39. SAR of SSRIs Mono substitution in para position of phenoxy group by electron withdrawing group results gain in 5HT selective inhibition But bi-substitution or mono-substitution at other places or use of electron donating group causes loss in selective inhibition
  40. 40. CF3 is mono- subs in para position Introducing ring in the fluoxetine derivatives maintains selectivity for 5HT transporter but lowers the potency, except in paroxetine which is more potent than fluoxetine. The amine group shows maximum potency when in 2o form ie 3o amine reduce potency for 5HT transportors.
  41. 41. Atypical Anti Depressants  They are a mixed group of agents that have actions at several different sites  Atypical antidepressants ease depression by affecting chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) used to communicate between brain cells.  Like other types of antidepressants, atypical antidepressants affect neurotransmitters including dopamine, serotonin and nor epinephrine.  Changing the balance of these chemicals seems to help brain cells send and receive messages, which in turn boosts mood.
  42. 42. Classification Bupropion Trazodone Mianserin
  43. 43. Mechanism of action It is similar to that of SSRIs. It inhibits the re uptake of serotonin leading to increase concentration in brain.
  44. 44. Bupropion White solid in appearance Soluble in water and ethanol. Drug belong to class Atypical antidepressants. Similar in action to SSRIs. Very potent to use.
  45. 45. Therapeutic Uses Atypical antidepressants are frequently used in patients with major depression who have inadequate responses or intolerable side effects during first-line treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)  Atypical antidepressants are often first-line treatment if the drug has a desirable characteristic (eg, sexual side effects and weight gain occur less often with bupropion than SSRIs).
  46. 46. Adverse Effects Anxiety Restlesness Blurred vision Constipation Agitation Dry mouth Nausea
  47. 47. Discontinution of Antidepressants Antidepressants should be gradually tapered and should not be abruptly discontinued. Abruptly stopping an antidepressant in some patients can cause discontinuation syndrome.
  48. 48. Conclusion Depression is a serious condition that often can be effectively treated with available therapies. Side effects and drug interactions are barriers to successful treatment. Some side effects of antidepressants resolve with continued use while other side effects can be managed by dose reduction or adding other therapies. Appropriate management of side effects and avoidance of drugs that may interact with antidepressants may improve the success of antidepressant therapy.