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Hepetitis

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Hepetitis

  1. 1. PREPARED BY: Saifuddin Lala M.B.A(Pharma)
  2. 2.  Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver  Hepat (liver) + itis (inflammation)= Hepatitis  Viral hepatitis means there is a specific virus that is causing your liver to inflame (swell or become larger than normal)
  3. 3.  The word hepatitis comes from the Ancient Greek word hepar (root word hepat) meaning 'liver', and the Latin itis meaning inflammation. Hepatitis means injury to the liver with inflammation of the liver cells.
  4. 4.  Is located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen •Cleans the blood •Regulates hormones •Helps with blood clotting •Produces bile •Produces important proteins •Maintains blood sugar levels •And much, much, more • The liver is essential for life !
  5. 5. Walls of scar tissue begin to form Healthy liver cells become trapped by a wall of scar tissue
  6. 6. 5 types: A: fecal-oral transmission B: sexual fluids & blood to blood C: blood to blood D: travels with B E: fecal–oral transmission Vaccine Preventable Adapted from Corneil, 2003
  7. 7.  Affects each person differently  No vaccine available  Many people have the virus and do not even know it  Approximately 1 out of 100 Canadians infected *BC Hepatitis Service 2003 Overall cure rate with new treatment is 55% *
  8. 8. Adapted from Lauer and Walker, NEJM 2001 Healthy Liver Acute Infection Chronic Infection 20% Clear the Virus 80% Virus Continues to Damage Liver Only 20% will show symptoms Initially !
  9. 9. Hepatitis D - only a person who is already infected with Hepatitis B can become infected with Hepatitis D. It is caused by the virus HDV (Hepatitis D Virus). Infection is through contact with infected blood, unprotected sex, and perforation of the skin with infected needles. The liver of a person with Hepatitis D swells
  10. 10. •Hepatitis E - a person can become infected by drinking water that contains HEV (Hepatitis E Virus). The liver swells but there is no long-term consequence. Infection is also possible through anal-oral sex. •Hepatitis X - if a hepatitis cannot be attributed to the viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, or E, it is called Hepatitis X. In other words, hepatitis of an unknown virus.
  11. 11. Chronic Hepatitis Cirrhosis 20-30% Liver Cancer 1-4%/year Most symptoms begin to show only when liver is more severely damaged
  12. 12.  30yrs or longer if:  Young at time of infection  Healthy liver at time of infection  Female  20yrs or less if:  Drinking alcohol  Co-infection (HIV, Hep B)  Damaged liver before infection Adapted from Bigham, BC Hepatitis Services 2002
  13. 13.  Individuals may have one or more of the following symptoms, while others experience no symptoms: –Tiredness –Nausea –Muscle or joint pain –Trouble sleeping –Loss of appetite –Weight loss –Abdominal pain –Itchiness –Depression –Dark urine (pee)
  14. 14.  A few may have specific liver related symptoms initially:  Pale stool (poo)  Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes)
  15. 15.  Hepatitis C is not spread by:  Casual contact  Hugging/kissing  Sharing eating utensils and drinking glasses  Sneezing/coughing  Shaking hands  Sitting on a toilet seat
  16. 16.  Never share drug equipment  Straws, bills, needles, syringes, water, filter, cooker, pipes etc…  Never share tooth brushes/razors or any personal hygiene articles that have blood on them (even tiny amounts).  Practice safer sex
  17. 17.  Always make sure new & sterilized equipment is being used for tattooing & piercing  Make sure ink for tattooing is not being shared  Do not touch dirty needles without proper equipment or following proper procedures
  18. 18. 1. Handle only if you have proper equipment  Sturdy pair of gloves, tongs or pliers and a puncture proof container (heavy plastic or metal) 1. Place needle in puncture proof container  Do not touch needle with bare hands and do not try to recap needle if cap present 1. Can dispose container in garbage but better if it is taken to health clinic or needle exchange
  19. 19. REFERENCES 1.Pawlotsky, J. M. 2002. Molecular diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Gastroenterology 122:1554-1568.. 2. Hoofnagle JH. Course and outcome of hepatitis C. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 36(suppl 1):S21–S29. 3. Farci P, Alter HJ, Wong D, Miller RH, Shih JW, Jett B, Purcell RH. A long-term study of hepatitis C virus replication in non-A,non-B hepatitis. N Engl J Med 19 4.WHO Hepatitis . Who.int. 2010-12-08. Retrieved 2012-08-2691;325:98–104.

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