1. DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
Md. Saiful Islam
Dept. of Geography and Environment
Shahjalal University of Science andTechnology
Sylhet – 3114, Bangladesh
2. What is Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)?
Disaster Risk Reduction is: ‘Actions taken to reduce the risk of disasters
and the adverse impacts of natural hazards, through systematic efforts to
analyze and manage the causes of disasters, including through avoidance
of hazards, reduced social and economic vulnerability to hazards, and
improved preparedness for adverse events’
- UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR)
The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities
to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to
avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse
impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development.
- United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction
3. Steps for Implementing DRR Strategy
1. Ensure that DRR is a national and local priority with strong institutional basis
2. Identify, assess, and monitor disaster risks – and enhance early warning.
3. Use knowledge, innovation, and education to build a culture of safety and
resilience at all levels.
4. Reduce the underlying risk factors.
5. Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective at all levels.
- (Hyoga Framework of Action, adopted in UNWCDR, Hyoga, Japan in 2005)
4. Components of Disaster Risk Reduction
- Measures to be taken before and after an event
- Measures to be taken before and after an event
- Measures to be taken during and immediately after an event
- Post disaster measures
5. 1. Mitigation
What is Mitigation?
Mitigation is the effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of
disasters. It is permanent reduction of the risk of a disaster. Mitigation lessens the likelihood
and severity of disaster by implementing sustained actions, such as improved construction
practice, to reduce or eliminate long-term risk to people and property. Mitigation of hazard
impacts reduces the possibility of disaster and reduces the need for assistance.
Mitigation includes recognizing that disasters will occur; attempts are made to reduce the
harmful effects of a disaster, and to limit their impact on human suffering and economic
Types of Mitigation
1. Primary Mitigation:
Primary mitigation refers to increasing the resistance to the hazard and reducing
2. Secondary Mitigation:
Secondary mitigation refers to reducing the effects of the hazard (preparedness).
6. Various Approaches / Strategies of Disaster Mitigation
1) Risk Identification
The first step in disaster mitigation is to identify areas that are at risk to hazard. Once the
priority zones have been identified, comprehensive and integrated risk reduction programs
should be initiated.
2) Land-Use Planning
Land-use planning includes the mapping of disaster prone area which should contain
number of livestock per unit area, crop density, population density, road network, location of
3) Structural and Non-Structural
Mitigation measures may involve construction (e.g. dykes and flood protection walls, and
also ecosystem-based approaches to flood and erosion control, such as planting mangrove
forests) and non-material measures (e.g. land-use restrictions in flood risk areas).
4) Disaster relief and Rehabilitation
Supply emergency humanitarian aid to victims for survival and relocate the peoples whose
residence have been destroyed very badly, inappropriate for living.
7. 5) Disaster Management Training and Education
Trained up group of personnel need to be formed in local, national and regional context to
mitigate and reduce disaster risk and damages.
6) Role of Media in Disaster Risk Reduction
Media is the effective means to circulate the news and bulletins about hazard warning and
7) Institutional Capacity Building
Several institutional bodies are engaged with disaster mitigation processes such as local
community, organization, local and national government, NGOs, international organization
etc. Ability and capacity of those institutions should be as high as they are capable to
mitigate the disaster.
8. 2. Disaster Preparedness
Preparedness refers the measures that ensure the organized mobilization of personnel, funds,
equipment, and supplies within a safe environment for effective relief. Preparedness lessens the
severity of disasters by preparing people for disaster, developing plans to ensure an effective
response and recovery and training people to implement plans after a disaster occurs.
1) Forecasting and Warning for Different Hazards.
2) Emergency Preparedness
- Organized personnel for monitoring, alert and evacuation
- Medical team
- Search and rescue team
- Availability of food reserve
- Emergency monetary fund and seed reserve
- Distribution of disaster supplies and equipment
3) Education, Training and Public Awareness
9. Weather Forecast and Early Warning
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the
atmosphere for a given location. Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about
the current state of the atmosphere at a given place and using scientific understanding of
atmospheric processes to project how the atmosphere will change.
Various types of tools like Barometer, Radiosonde, Satellite (Geostationary and Polar Orbit),
Radar, and other equipments.
Early Warning System
Early warning is a major element of disaster risk reduction. It prevents loss of life and reduces
the economic and material impact of disasters. early warning systems can be used to detect a
wide range of events, such as vehicular collisions, missile launches, disease outbreaks, and so
To be effective, early warning systems need to actively involve the communities at risk, facilitate
public education and awareness of risks, effectively disseminate alerts, and warnings and ensure
there is constant state of preparedness.
10. Tasks Related to Early Warning
2) Indigenous Knowledge
Types of Early Weather and Forecasting: Based on Duration
1) Short Range: 48 – 72 Hours (e.g. Cyclone, Hurricane, Bombing, Flood etc.)
2) Medium Range: 3 Days to 3 Weeks (e.g. Cold and Heat Wave, Floods etc.)
3) Long Range: Over a Season (El-Nino, La-Nino etc.)
Types of Early Weather and Forecasting: Based on Purposes
4) Agricultural Base
11. Level of Preparedness
- Volunteering activities
- Protesting environmental degradation
- Awareness building
- Emergency steps
3) National: Developing principles and laws, executing rules, funding etc.
4) International / Regional: Seminar, Conference, Exchange of Technology and knowledge.
12. 3. Response
Disaster response is the implementing phase of the disaster preparedness step. The focus in
the response phase is on meeting the basic needs of the people until more permanent and
sustainable solutions can be found.
To be ready for response with capability to provide rapid and efficient medical, rescue and
emergency supplies, and equipment to those in need, following steps of task should be
3. Requirement Analysis
4. Rescue and Evacuation
5. Emergency Assistance (e.g. medical care, shelter, distribution of food, water and
13. 4. Recovery
Disaster recovery (DR) involves a set of policies and procedures to enable the recovery or
continuation of vital technology infrastructure and systems following a natural or human-
induced disaster. In other words, recovery is implementation of actions to promote
sustainable redevelopment following a disaster, including new building code standards and
land-use planning controls.
Recovery consists of:
2. Reconstruction (During reconstruction it is absolutely necessary to consider mitigation
measures including relocation, land use zoning etc.)
- Rebuilding of house and public buildings
- Financing for rebuilding
- Repair of roads, bridge, water system etc.
3. Psychological counseling
4. Long-term assistance to rebuild the community.