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B TECH,NIT CALICUT
It is new mode of transport other than road, rail, air , water.
Hyper loop consists of a low pressure tube with capsules that are
transported at both low and high speeds throughout the length of
It was proposed by Elon Musk CEO of TESLA MOTORS and
SPACEX and Co-founder of PAY-PAL
A high-level alpha design for the system was published on
August 12, 2013, in a whitepaper posted to the Tesla and SpaceX
It is an high speed train transporting at a speed of 800mph which
is twice the speed of a commercial plane.
Elon Musk didn’t even patented the design quoting ‘see if people
find ways to improve it’. It will be an open source design anyone
can access it.
A Hyperloop would be "an elevated, reduced-pressure tube that
contains pressurized capsules driven within the tube by a
number of linear electric motors.”
Hyperloop consists of a low pressure tube with capsules that are
transported at both low and high speeds throughout the length of
Due to high traffic US government proposed a high speed
train project between San Francisco to Los Angeles called
“California High Speed Rail” with $68.4 Billion USD.
The average speed is 164mph and takes approx 3 hours.
Estimated cost of Hyperloop is $7.8 billion USD and takes
35 mins to cover same distance.
In past Robert Goddard proposed using vacuum as medium
of transport there by attain speed without high friction
losses but there’s lot of possibility of leaks . And when
there is a leak it will damage the whole system.
Elon Musk thought of overcoming it with maintaing low
pressure rather than vacuum and using electromagnetic
When we use less pressure instead of vacuum we have
to consider the minimum tube to pod area ratio then we
need to increase the diameter of tube or go slow or
really , really fast.
But increasing speed that high will become very much
Here an electric compressor fan mounted on the nose of
the pod that actively transfers high pressure air from the
front to the rear of the vessel.
A battery can’t store enough energy to power fan over
whole journey so a linear electric motor, a round
induction motor rolled flat is provided.
Lower costs and this kind of speed
Immune to weather
Sustainably self powering
Resistant to earth quakes
Decrease the traffic
Decreases the frictional losses that occur at subsonic
Using solar power.
It cannot decrease the number current trips and cost
relatively to existing transport systems but it
decreases the travelling time and costs between
California and Los Angeles
We can mount solar panels on the tubes for energy to
transport and use battery to store for night time.
The energy cost and energy consumed per passenger
is also relatively lower compared to existing systems.
Energy consumed per passenger to travel same
distance is very low compared to cars, aero planes ,
high speed trains.
The maximum width is 4.43 ft (1.35 m) and maximum
height is 6.11 ft (1.10 m). With rounded corners, this is
equivalent to a 15 ft2 (1.4 m2) frontal area, not including any
propulsion or suspension components.
The capsules are accelerated via a magnetic linear
accelerator affixed at various stations on the low pressure
tube with rotors contained in each capsule
For travel at high speeds, the greatest power
requirement is normally to overcome air resistance.
Aerodynamic drag increases with the square of speed,
and thus the power requirement increases with the cube
For example, to travel twice as fast a vehicle must
overcome four times the aerodynamic resistance, and
input eight times the power
The capsules are supported via air bearings that
operate using a compressed air reservoir and
This is an operating pressure of 100 Pascal’s, which
reduces the drag force of the air by 1,000 times relative
to sea level conditions and would be equivalent to flying
above 150,000 feet altitude
One important feature of the capsule is the
onboard compressor, which serves two purposes .
This system allows the capsule to traverse the
relatively narrow tube without choking flow that
travels between the capsule and the tube walls
by compressing air that is bypassed through the
capsule. It also supplies air to air bearings that
support the weight of the capsule throughout the
Tube air is compressed with a compression ratio of
20:1 via an axial compressor
Up to 60% of this air is bypassed:
a. The air travels via a narrow tube near bottom of the
capsule to the tail.
b. A nozzle at the tail expands the flow generating thrust
to mitigate some of the small amounts of aerodynamic
and bearing drag
The compressor is powered by a 436 hp (325 kW) onboard
a. The motor has an estimated mass of 372 lb (169 kg), which
includes power electronics.
b. An estimated 3,400 lb (1,500 kg) of batteries provides 45
minutes of onboard compressor power, which is more than sufficient
for the travel time with added reserve backup power.
In order to optimize the capsule speed and performance,
the frontal area has been minimized for size while
maintaining passenger comfort.
Hyperloop passenger transport capsule conceptual design sketch
The tube is made of steel. Two tubes will be welded
together in a side by side configuration to allow the
capsules to travel both directions.
Pylons are placed every 100 ft (30 m) to support the
Solar arrays will cover the top of the tubes in order to
provide power to the system.
The inner diameter of the tube is optimized to be 7 ft 4
in. (2.23 m) which is small enough to keep material cost
low while large enough to provide some alleviation of
choked air flow around the capsule.
The tube cross-sectional area is 42.2 ft2 (3.91 m2)
giving a capsule/tube area ratio of 36% or a diameter
ratio of 60%.
The high-speed transport more generally ,have
historically been impeded by the difficulties in
managing friction and air resistance, both of which
become substantial when vehicles approach high
vactrain concept : tubes kept at a complete vacuum,
allowing for theoretical speeds of thousands of miles
The expected pressure inside the tube will be
maintained around 100pa (less pressure).
This low pressure minimizes the drag force on the
capsule while maintaining the relative ease of
pumping out the air from the tube.
Linear accelerators are constructed along the length of the tube
at various locations to accelerate the capsules.
Stators are located on the capsules to transfer momentum to the
capsules via the linear accelerators.
Capsules are accelerated by linear magnetic induction and
decelerated by regenerative braking similar to magnetic
The Hyperloop as a whole is projected to consume an average
of 28,000 hp (21 MW).
This includes the power needed to make up for propulsion
motor efficiency (including elevation changes), aerodynamic
drag, charging the batteries to power on-board compressors,
and vacuum pumps to keep the tube evacuated.
Each accelerator has two 65 MVA inverters, one to accelerate
the outgoing capsule, and one to capture the energy from the
The Hyperloop uses a linear induction motor to accelerate and
decelerate the capsule. This provides several important
benefits over a permanent magnet motor
For aerodynamic efficiency, the velocity of a capsule in the
Hyperloop is typically:
• 300 mph (480 kmph) where local geography necessitates
a tube bend radii< 1.0 mile (1.6 km)
• 760 mph (1,220 kmph) where local geography allows a
tube bend > 3.0miles (4.8 km) or where local geography
permits a straight tube.
These bend radii have been calculated so that the passenger
does not experience inertial accelerations that exceed 0.5g.
This is deemed the maximum inertial acceleration that can be
comfortably sustained by humans for short periods. To further
reduce the inertial acceleration experienced by passengers, the
capsule and/or tube will incorporate a mechanism that will
allow a degree of ‘banking’.
Suspending the capsule within the tube presents a substantial
technical challenge due to transonic cruising velocities.
Conventional wheel and axle systems become impractical at
high speed due frictional losses and dynamic instability.
A viable technical solution is magnetic levitation; however the
cost associated with material and construction is prohibitive.
An alternative to these conventional options is an air bearing
suspension. Air bearings offer stability and extremely low drag
at a feasible cost by exploiting the ambient atmosphere in the
When the gap height between a ski and the tube wallis reduced,
the flow field in the gap exhibits a highly non-linear reaction
resulting in large restoring pressures
Schematic of air bearing skis that support the capsule.
The increased pressure pushes the ski away from the wall,
allowing it to return to its nominal ride height
Capsule Stranded in Tube
A high speed transportation system known as Hyperloop
Its basically magnetic levitation train in vacuum tubes helping
in achieving high speeds.
It has various advantages over traditional transport system.
More expansion on the control mechanism for Hyperloop
capsules, including attitude thruster or control moment gyros.
Using conventional magnetic levitation systems.
Testing of prototype and decreasing the cost further.
◦ Musk, Elon (August 12, 2013). "Hyperloop Alpha". SpaceX.
◦ “Hyperloop” ,Wikipedia
◦ Garber, Megan (July 13, 2012). "The Real iPod: Elon
Musk's Wild Idea for a 'Jetson Tunnel' from S.F. to
L.A.". The Atlantic.
◦ "Beyond the hype of Hyperloop: An analysis of Elon
Musk's proposed transit system".Gizmag.com. August 22,
◦ Bilton, Nick. "Could the Hyperloop Really Cost $6 Billion?
Critics Say No". The New York Times.