2. Contemporary World Media
This book is dedicated to my ancestors who were journalists and pioneers of their period:
- My father, Raja Ghulam Ahmad, publisher and editor of “Awaz-e-Niswan”, a monthly
periodical published from Delhi, until the end of 1947.
- My Uncle, Raja Ghulam Hussain, the sub Editor of Maulana Jauhar Ali’s English
newspaper, Comrade, and later his own, New Era. (Died at a young age in traffic
- My maternal uncle, Maulvi Ahmad Shafi of Lahore, was a writer and contributor of
articles and columns in the Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore.
- My mother’s uncle, Munshi Mehbub Alam, the publisher and editor of “Paisa
Akhbar”, published from Anarkali, Lahore, in 1930s.
4. Contemporary World Media
Privately owned media enterprises, print or electronic, are inherently managed as businesses. This
means that all media enterprises in the private sector are expected to make a profit for their private
owners or shareholders. Hence, the notion of media working as propaganda machines against a
particular community or group, can be misleading. Media earns money largely by selling its content
through print or electronic devices to general public or specific segments of the population.
Therefore, owners want to ensure that editors and reporters present products that would sell to the
largest number of people. Even advertisement earnings are usually tied to circulation (print),
viewership (television), and listenership (radio). Editorial slant can be a function of editors’
judgment and technical advice on the market segments that were being targeted and their interests.
Media serves like smorgasbord or buffet, offering something for everybody, such as news, opinion,
entertainment, and advertisement, for its audience and consumers who buy it for what they like.
The author of Contemporary Modern Media, has chosen to acquire information about media mostly
direct from the source, and to the extent possible, from the annual reports of the major media
organizations. That is why readers will notice dollar figures, earnings and expenses, and news about
acquisitions, for various media conglomerates. Chronological history of the major media enterprises
and their founders or notable leaders, are also mentioned to give a flair of the real world. With the
exception of the introductory pages, any discussion of the motives or editorial slant of any media is
avoided for the sake of objectivity.
What is true about world media, is also true for Pakistani media as far as their business motive is
concerned. With the exception of state owned media, almost all of print media and most of electronic
media is in the private sector. Its presence is felt by a fraction of the population that can afford to buy
newspapers or subscribe to cable TV channels. Even though many of the major TV channels and
newspapers have expanded their reach to global audience via satellite and internet, it is basically
Pakistanis audience who are their users. Pakistan is no exception. Internet and satellite transmissions
are making a huge difference for the viewers or readers of media outside their home countries.
Nonetheless, in general, developing countries have a long way to go before their presence will be felt
by the world.
The book in your hands, Contemporary World Media, is prepared as a resource book for the B.S.
students and teachers, following 2008 curriculum of Mass Communication approved by the Higher
Education Commission, Islamabad. The three credit hours subject is a required discipline specific
Professor Mughees uddin Sheikh, Ph.D.
Professor and Dean
Superior University, Lahore
8 June 2012
5. Contemporary World Media
Human beings need information, at every stage in their lives, for various reasons. These may vary
from the basic instinct to find food and protection, necessary for survival, to higher level goals such
as updating one’s knowledge of surroundings and environment, recognition and opportunities. This
need for information has given birth to a market where people with ability to pay, generate demand.
There are investors and businesses that recognize this demand and fulfill it by providing desired
information through media that their customers can access and want. In the early days of human
history, demand for information was fulfilled freely via inter-personal contacts with neighbors and
fellow citizens, and for the news outside of their immediate environment, people would listen
attentively to incoming travelers. Needless to say, not everyone could be present when traveler told
their tales. This information would, however, be told and re-told by word of mouth to others. During
this process information could be distorted, abbreviated, and changed entirely. To overcome this
problem, sometimes, stories told by travelers were simplified and retold in poems that were recited
far and wide, for generations.
Human communication has come a long way since the early days of the civilization. Written
language and subsequently, printed word, have changed human communication forever. With the
help of postal services, messages and stories could be sent and shared with relatives, friends and even
strangers, through letters, magazines, newspapers and books. This is when communication for the
masses was born. The twentieth century witnessed information explosion when, relatively speaking,
rapid inventions of telephone, radio, and television, gave a new meaning to mass communication
because these media disseminated information to millions of people simultaneously. The power of
media was enhanced further by the fact that viewers and listeners need not be even literate. The only
barrier was, and still is, the ability to access the broadcast receiving equipment. Until about three
decades ago, dissemination of information from one end of the earth to another could only be done
via telephone, planes and short-wave radio. Television broadcasts were limited to nearby
communities. Later, radio and television signals were boosted via relay stations to cover larger
territories or even the entire nation. Introduction of satellite technology has changed everything
because it has practically eliminated all physical barriers to telecommunications and broadcast
media. People living in Asia or Africa, given facilities, can now view TV programs originating from
America and Europe and vice-versa. Media mughals, however, discontinued the free broadcasts by
coding their signals that only proprietary controlled receivers could decode. The design gave birth to
the cable system that spread rapidly world-wide. Cable companies offered crystal clear TV
reception, and a wide programming choice against a monthly fee. Some of the same corporations
that television networks and movie studios also owned the cable companies. Cable systems and
satellite services accounted for a record 31% of 2007 U.S. media revenue. Three cable/satellite
companies rank among the top 10 media firms: Comcast, DirecTV Group and Dish Network Corp.
Time Warner Cable should be in the top 10 in next year's ranking.1
Johnson, Bradley “Media 100's Net U.S. Media Revenue Rises 4.6%, Nearing $300 Billion”, Advertising Age, May 18, 2009
6. Contemporary World Media
The picture is different in the developing world, often referred to as the Third World. In this world,
access to media is restricted for assorted reasons. Most of all, the ownership of working television
sets, radio and ability to purchase printed materials is limited to a small proportion of the population.
Producers for media are restricted by public policies. Most countries have strict rules and regulations
that govern how materials are produced and how are they broadcast or published. Governments not
only control means of public broadcast systems they also watch carefully what is broadcasted on
private media. Governments of the poor countries complain that foreign media mistreat, malign or
misrepresent their news. However, media is far from free in their own countries. Until a couple of
decades ago, it was claimed that “Two-thirds of the print media throughout the globe, and three-
fourths of the electronic media, are dominated by governments—which either control the media
outright or possesses a significant, and often menacing, voice in what does or does not appear.” It is
a frequent occurrence that journalists got killed or disappeared, were beaten, bombed, or simply
harassed for their reports.
On the other hand, developing countries continue to claim that “powerful Western and Soviet
interests monopolized the international flow of news and information, and that Third World
countries, when publicized at all, were depicted in images that were cruel and unfair. As argued by a
group in UNESCO, “big five” press agencies (Associated Press and United Press International; the
British agency, Reuters, Agence-France—Press ; and the Soviet TASS controlled more than 80
percent of the world news flow. Four radio networks (Voice of America, the British Broadcasting
Corporation, Deutsche Welle and Radio-Moscow ) have a virtual monopoly of all radio programs
beamed abroad. Eighty percent of the book production in the world is concentrated in the main
industrialized countries. The same is true of the production of television and news films, not to
mention satellites, computers, microprocessors, videotexts, and the whole range of advanced
The situation is changing positively for the Third World, though not drastically, since the
aforementioned observations were made, two decades ago, mainly owing to the placement of
communication satellites in the space and rapidly widening access to the internet via personal
computers. For example, Gulf-based Al Jazeera, with limited resources, is bravely competing with
the Western news networks, globally. Several more countries like China, Japan, Korea, Canada,
Italy, France, are now broadcasting in various languages to audience of all nationalities. Pakistan
television networks like Geo and ARY are reaching out to Pakistani audience world-wide.
Accessibility to cable networks in major urban areas, is allowing people to choose what they want to
see from a wide array of channels beaming from home and abroad. Internet access in developing
countries is still poor because of the absence of broadband facilities, cost of equipment and services,
as well as awareness, but it is slowly increasing. Television and VCR have largely replaced cinema,
resulting in declining production of feature films, to be shown in the movie houses. Since access to
internet is moving at snail pace, newspapers and other print media still play the limited role it has
always played. Radio is re-vitalized by increasing spread of FM transmissions and community radio
services that focus on both information, entertainment, particularly on local news and events.
The information explosion is not over yet. The global spread of personal computers together with the
capacity of internet, and mobile phone technology have brought yet another revolution that is
changing and challenging the world of mass media altogether. The biggest challenge, phenomenally
Farrar, Ronald T., Mass Communication, An Introduction to the Field, West Publishing Company, St. Paul, USA, 1988,
Ch. 24, pp.530-534.
7. Contemporary World Media
expanding internet and some other technological advances such as digital recording media, are
posing to mass media is by its empowering the passive recipients of yesteryears of broadcast media
into active participants who could choose what to see and hear and what to ignore. The wide-spread
ability and access to internet, globally, have introduced a quantum leap for millions of savvy users of
information, by enabling them to even advance their view point and make it available to hundreds of
millions of people and hence become mass communicators at practically minimal cost. Many activist
users of internet are publishing their materials on their own websites called blogs. The web sites such
as Face book, Twitter, You Tube, and many others are attracting millions to express themselves on
almost any issue under the sun. These sites are cleverly designed for people who do not much time to
write long stories. They can write just a few words to express themselves and announce their
presence. Ability to add videos, and photos to short sentences, have enhanced communication to new
levels of interest, particularly among young users.
The broadband technology and rapidly falling prices of personal computers are pointing to a future
where most of the traditional media is likely to lose its luster, for the educated and elite class,
altogether. That is a bad news for the established mass media operators because this class of people
were the most sought after customers who bought expensive merchandize and paid heavy connection
fees. Owners of major mass media production houses, however, were quick to recognize the change
in the paradigm shift taking place in their industry. Many of them have reluctantly accepted the
change and have begun to mark their presence in the new internet markets. For example, many
newspapers have begun to publish their online editions. Similarly numerous international popular
periodicals can now be accessed on internet. Radio and television companies have begun to offer
their programs and entertainment materials via web-casting. People can now purchase and download
movies and other entertainment materials straight on their computers and view when they like.
Competition for the dollars of the internet users is intense and ensures more innovation and variety in
the products and services available to customers. The latest trend is to provide news with internet
Media companies make money in several ways. For movies, bulk of the income comes from the box
office sales and rentals. Cable operators collect fees from viewers for watching TV channels, movies,
pay-per-view plans and pay royalty fees to studios. Cable operators/ franchisers share income from
cable subscriptions with the media houses but most importantly, revenue from advertisers. At the
latest count, according to a report in Advertising Age, (cited above) total advertising revenue of 100
media companies in USA, was about $300 billion. Needless to say, it is advertising that is the engine
that drives media. However, the trouble began when advertisers started to pull money out mostly
from print media to invest on online advertising. Print media in the developed world is now
struggling for its life. Several newspapers have folded businesses and others are hanging by a thread.
Readers are finding nearly everything they looked for in a newspaper or magazine, on the net, which
gives them a bigger choice and is often free.
An attempt is made in the following pages to present a picture of the companies that manage
information on the mass media. These are basically corporations with global operations, and set up to
maximize profits for their shareholders. Editorial policies are largely formed to catch maximum
audience. If they feel their audience will like to see anti-Muslim news and opinions, they will
certainly increase such content. However, they can and do influence what audience think and want.
8. Contemporary World Media
Researchers have established long ago the agenda setting role of mass media. In other words, what is
shown on mass media can lead the discussion and direction of the public opinion. Hence, it is
important to learn about the owners of the major media houses, their policies, publicly stated aims
and objectives, biases and strategies. It is best to learn from the publicly available information about
the major mass media players that has been collected and presented on these pages. Readers should
use discretion in interpreting the information provided and draw their own conclusions. A deliberate
effort is made to avoid second hand sources of information such as from Wikipedia etc. and other
similar sources. Since the companies selected are dynamic and constantly changing in their
structures, philosophy, and alliances, it is suggested that this information be updated by the readers
regularly via internet references shown.
Javed Sajjad Ahmad
Sr. Adviser to the Vice Chancellor
University of Gujrat,
Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat
8 June 2012
9. Contemporary World Media
An Overview The Global Media Giants 08
Profile of Major Media Giants
The Voice of America (VOA) 19
Deutsche Welle (VOG) 23
The Associated Press (AP) 27
Star Network 37
Profile of World Elite Press 39
• The New York Times 39
• The Washington Post 43
• The Los Angles Times 51
• The London Times
• The Guardian 56
• Newsweek 57
Media Conglomeration: Big Media Giants: 60
Time Warner 61
• News Corporation 71
• General Electric 77
• Bloomberg 79
Sony Corporation 85
New Media 87
Online Journalism 88
Suggested Reading Materials 93
10. Contemporary World Media
The Global Media Giants
By Robert McChesney3
A specter now haunts the world: a global commercial media system dominated by a small number of
super powerful, mostly U.S.-based transnational media corporations. It is a system that works to
advance the cause of the global market and promote commercial values, while denigrating
journalism and culture not conducive to the immediate bottom line or long-run corporate interests. It
is a disaster for anything but the most superficial notion of democracy--a democracy where, to
paraphrase John Jay's maxim, those who own the world ought to govern it.
The global commercial system is a very recent development. Until the 1980s, media systems were
generally national in scope. While there have been imports of books, films, music and TV shows for
decades, the basic broadcasting systems and newspaper industries were domestically owned and
regulated. Beginning in the 1980s, pressure from the IMF, World Bank and U.S. government to
deregulate and privatize media and communication systems coincided with new satellite and digital
technologies, resulting in the rise of transnational media giants.
How quickly has the global media system emerged? The two largest media firms in the world, Time
Warner and Disney, generated around 15 percent of their income outside of the United States in
1990. By 1997, that figure was in the 30 percent-35 percent range. Both firms expect to do a majority
of their business abroad at some point in the next decade.
The global media system is now dominated by a first tier of nine giant firms. The five largest are
Time Warner (1997 sales: $24 billion), Disney ($22 billion), Bertelsmann ($15 billion), Viacom
($13 billion), and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation ($11 billion). Besides needing global scope
to compete, the rules of thumb for global media giants are twofold: First, get bigger so you dominate
markets and your competition can't buy you out. Firms like Disney and Time Warner have almost
tripled in size this decade.
Second, have interests in numerous media industries, such as film production, book publishing,
music, TV channels and networks, retail stores, amusement parks, magazines, newspapers and the
like. The profit whole for the global media giant can be vastly greater than the sum of the media
parts. A film, for example, should also generate a soundtrack, a book, and merchandise, and possibly
spin-off TV shows, CD-ROMs, video games and amusement park rides. Firms that do not have
conglomerated media holdings simply cannot compete in this market.
The first tier is rounded out by TCI, the largest U.S. cable company that also has U.S. and global
media holdings in scores of ventures too numerous to mention. The other three first-tier global media
firms are all part of much larger industrial corporate powerhouses: General Electric (1997 sales:
$80 billion), owner of NBC; Sony (1997 sales: $48 billion), owner of Columbia & TriStar Pictures
11. Contemporary World Media
and major recording interests; and Seagram (1997 sales: $14 billion), owner of Universal film and
music interests. The media holdings of these last four firms do between $6 billion and $9 billion in
business per year. While they are not as diverse as the media holdings of the first five global media
giants, these four firms have global distribution and production in the areas where they compete. And
firms like Sony and GE have the resources to make deals to get a lot bigger very quickly if they so
Behind these firms is a second tier of some three or four dozen media firms that do between $1
billion and $8 billion per year in media-related business. These firms tend to have national or
regional strongholds or to specialize in global niche markets. About one-half of them come from
North America, including the likes of CBS, the New York Times Co., Hearst, Comcast and
Gannett. Most of the rest come from Europe, with a handful based in East Asia and Latin America.
In short, the overwhelming majority (in revenue terms) of the world's film production, TV show
production, cable channel ownership, cable and satellite system ownership, book publishing,
magazine publishing and music production is provided by these 50 or so firms, and the first nine
firms thoroughly dominate many of these sectors. By any standard of democracy, such a
concentration of media power is troubling, if not unacceptable.
But that hardly explains how concentrated and uncompetitive this global media power actually is. In
addition, these firms are all actively engaged in equity joint ventures where they share ownership of
concerns with their "competitors" so as to reduce competition and risk. Each of the nine first-tier
media giants, for example, has joint ventures with, on average, two-thirds of the other eight first-tier
media giants. And the second tier is every bit as aggressive about making joint ventures. (See chart
below for the extent of joint ventures between media giants.)
We are the world
In some ways, the emerging global commercial media system is not an entirely negative proposition.
It occasionally promotes anti-racist, anti-sexist or anti-authoritarian messages that can be welcome in
some of the more repressive corners of the world. But on balance the system has minimal interest in
journalism or public affairs except for that which serves the business and upper-middle classes, and it
privileges just a few lucrative genres that it can do quite well--like sports, light entertainment and
action movies--over other fare. Even at its best the entire system is saturated by a hyper-
commercialism, a veritable commercial carpet-bombing of every aspect of human life. As the C.E.O.
of Westinghouse put it (Advertising Age, 2/3/97), "We are here to serve advertisers. That is our
Some once posited that the rise of the Internet would eliminate the monopoly power of the global
media giants. Such talk has declined recently as the largest media, telecommunication and computer
firms have done everything within their immense powers to colonize the Internet, or at least
neutralize its threat. The global media cartel may be evolving into a global communication cartel.
But the entire global media and communication system is still influx. While we are probably not too
far from crystallization, there will likely be considerable merger and joint venture activity in the
12. Contemporary World Media
coming years. Indeed, by the time you read this, there may already be some shifts in who owns what
What is tragic is that this entire process of global media concentration has taken place with little
public debate, especially in the U.S., despite the clear implications for politics and culture. After
World War II, the Allies restricted media concentration in occupied Germany and Japan because
they noted that such concentration promoted anti-democratic, even fascist, political cultures. It may
be time for the United States and everyone else to take a dose of that medicine. But for that to
happen will require concerted effort to educate and organize people around media issues. That is the
task before us.
13. Contemporary World Media
Profile of Major Media Giants
Who Really Determines What You Will Or Will Not See On TV Or Read In The Newspaper? (IHT,
In the early years of democracy the "free press" was all that stood between greedy corporate
interests, government corruption and you and I. While many newspapers were controlled by wealthy
individuals such as William Randolph Hearst, who influenced the content of the news in his papers, a
kind of journalistic "Hippocratic oath" seemed to prevail across the country as reporters and
publishers at small papers usually chose to pursue the truth in reporting.
Local papers, TV stations and radio outlets were owned mostly by local individuals with an interest
in their community. That began to change as a powerful institution known as the Council On Foreign
Relations gained power and the trend toward total corporate media control rapidly accelerated
during the Bush era with media consolidation.
Suddenly the old rule that one corporation could not own all of the town's news outlets was gone.
Companies like Clear Channel Communications suddenly began to buy up every radio station, TV
outlet and newspaper in major markets, effectively controlling everything that people read, watched
and heard. The pattern of media consolidation has increased during the last eight years to the point
that now only a few corporations control the news that we watch.
Just like the quote above, he who owns the media, controls the media. With such powerful platforms
they are able to drown out independent media and control public opinion and government policy.
There can be no freedom without freedom of the press and there can be no freedom of the press if
only a few powerful corporations are allowed to own it. What Liberal or Right Wing Media? It's Just
Who really controls the media? Is the so called "liberal media" that the right complains about
controlled by Hollywood and liberal special interests? Is Fox News controlled by the Republican
Party? If you believe any of these generalizations you are dead wrong and the truth will shock you.
Major multinational corporations, Middle Eastern sovereign wealth funds and Saudi Princes, all hell
bent on protecting their own interests, choose what you will see on the nightly news and trick you
into believing it is unbiased reporting. As we see below all the major news outlets, regardless of
what they make you believe, contributed heavily to George W. Bush in both 2000 and 2004 so any
argument that they are controlled by liberals evaporates. In this case they all supported the candidate
that promised to allow consolidation of multiple media companies.
The very news stories that you are fed by the mainstream media are manipulated to mirror the public
relations campaigns of companies that operate nuclear plants, sprawling theme parks that gobble up
wetlands, defense contractors, oil companies and even Saudi Princes. Remember the old "Outer
Limits" TV shows where the announcer says "We control everything you see and hear, the vertical,
the horizontal," etc? The corporate controlled news media controls all you see and hear.
Here are the top twenty0 media corporations in the U.S. according to mediaowners.com All but two
of the following, #18 and #19 are not members of the Council On Foreign Relations.
1. Time Warner Inc.
2. Walt Disney Company
14. Contemporary World Media
3. Viacom Inc.
4. News Corporation
5. CBS Corporation
6. Cox Enterprises
7. NBC Universal
8. Gannett Company, Inc.
9. Clear Channel Communications Inc.
10. Advance Publications, Inc.
11. Tribune Company
12. McGraw-Hill Companies
13. Hearst Corporation
14. Washington Post Company
15. The New York Times Company
16. E.W. Scripps Co.
17. McClatchy Company
18. Thomson Corporation
19. Freedom Communications, Inc.
20. A&E Television Networks
Who Owns The Media? Industry Giants, Saudi Princes and Australian Robber Barons.
Here is a breakdown of the "Liberal" media ownership By Corporations. Next Read Who Owns the
"GE, Not Just Light Bulbs Anymore"
GENERAL ELECTRIC - NBC (In 2000, they donated 1.1 million to George W Bush for his
* NBC: Owns outright 13 stations and many affiliates, Market penetration: 28% of US households.
* NBC Network News: Owns The Today Show, Nightly News with Tom Brokaw, Meet the Press,
* CNBC business network, MSNBC 24-hour cable and Internet news service (co-owned by both
NBC and Microsoft); Court TV (co-owned with Time Warner), Bravo (50%), A&E (25%), History
The MS in MSNBC stands for Microsoft, Bill Gate's Microsoft donated 2.4 million in 2000 to get
George W Bush elected.
* GE Consumer Electronics and Household Products and components used in military electronics..
* GE Power Systems, which makes turbines for nuclear reactors, wind turbines, "clean" coal
* GE Plastics: produces military hardware for fighter jets, ships and nuclear power equipment.
* GE Transportation Systems: manufactures engines and diesel and electric locomotives.
WESTINGHOUSE / CBS INC. "Not Just Fridges Anymore".
15. Contemporary World Media
Westinghouse Electric Company, part of the large Nuclear Utilities Business Group of British
Which is Headed By Frank Carlucci of the Carlyle Group. A group with very strong ties to the Bush
* CBS: Owns outright 14 stations and over 200 affiliates in the US.
* CBS Network News: 60 minutes, 48 hours, CBS Evening News, CBS Morning News.
* Country Music Television, The Nashville Network.
* Group W Satellite Communications.
* Westinghouse Electric Company: provides services to the nuclear power industry including owning
4 nuclear plants, waste disposal and transport.
The Late Disney Founder, Walt Disney. "Oh how far we have come Walt!"
DISNEY - ABC
(Donated $640,000 to George W Bush's 2000 political campaign)
* ABC: includes 10 stations outright, many affiliates, Penetration in the market: 24% of US
* ABC Network News: Prime Time Live, Nightline, 20/20, Good Morning America.
* ESPN, Lifetime Television (50%), as well as smaller holdings in A&E, History Channel and E!
* Disney Channel/Disney Television, Touchtone Television.
Other Major Media Holdings.
* Miramax, Touchtone Pictures.
* Major Magazines: Jane, Los Angeles Magazine, Discover.
* Three recording labels, twelve major local newspapers.
* Hyperion books.
* Infoseek search engine.
Major shareholders include Sid R. Bass, oil and gas baron.
Disney's environmental and social record: Source Wikipedia.org
The company has been accused of human rights violations regarding the working conditions in
factories that produce their merchandise. Numerous environmental groups in Florida and California
have criticized development procedures used in building theme parks including damage to wetlands.
An environmental management plan for a zone of Great Guana Cay, in the Abaco Islands, criticized
Disney for poor management of a 90-acre (36.4 ha) tract of the island. Disney partially developed but
then abandoned the place, which was to have been a cruise ship resort called Treasure Island. The
report, by the University of Miami and the College of the Bahamas, blames Disney for leaving
hazardous materials, electrical transformers, and fuel tanks, and for introducing invasive alien plants
and insects that threaten the natural flora and fauna of the island.
"Time, Not Just On The Coffee Table Anymore".
TIME-WARNER TBS - AOL (In 2000 they donated 1.6 million to George Bush's political
16. Contemporary World Media
America Online (AOL) acquired Time Warner which was the largest merger in corporate history.
* CNN, HBO, Cinemax, TBS Superstation, Turner Network Television, Turner Classic Movies,
Warner Brothers Television, Cartoon Network, Sega Channel, TNT, Comedy Central.
* Largest cable system owner with an estimated 13 million households.
* HBO Productions, Warner Home Video, New Line Cinema, Castle Rock, Looney Tunes, Hanna-
* Music: Atlantic, Elektra, Rhino, Sire, Warner Bros. Records, EMI.
* Thirty three major magazines including Time, Sports Illustrated, People Magazine, In Style,
Fortune, The Book of the Month Club, Entertainment Weekly, Life Magazine, DC Comics, MAD
Other major corporation Holdings:
* Sports Teams and Wrestling: The Atlanta Braves, The Atlanta Hawks, World Championship
Now For The "Conservative News Media" "The real Darth Vader?"
Why did Australian Rupert Murdoch forsake his native country and become a U.S. citizen?
Reportedly it was because he could save on taxes and start over in virgin territory after leaving
behind so much scorched earth in the Australian economy as he laid waste to his business opponents
and bought up media outlets. Or perhaps it was just so he could get around foreign media ownership
laws. (Which no longer exist.)
Does a Saudi billionaire actually have the power to control the news on the Fox network, of which he
is a part owner?
NEWS CORPORATION LTD. / FOX NETWORKS (Rupert Murdoch, numerous donations. On
Board of Directors of Phillip Morris, Phillip Morris Donated 2.9 million to Bush's campaign.
Major Television Holdings:
* Fox Television: includes 22 major and many affiliate stations, Penetration into more than 60% of
* Fox International: extensive worldwide cable and satellite networks include British Sky
Broadcasting (40%); VOX, Germany (49.9%); Canal Fox, Latin America; FOXTEL, Australia
(50%); STAR TV, Asia, Isky B, India; Bahasa Programming Ltd., Indonesia (50%); and News
Broadcasting, Japan (80%), major owner of DirecTV.
* The Golf Channel (33%).
Other Major Media Holdings:
* Twentieth Century Fox, Fox Searchlight.
* 132 major newspapers (113 in Australia alone) including the New York Post, the London Times
and The Australian.
* Owns 25 magazines including TV Guide and The Weekly Standard.
* Owns HarperCollins books.
Other Major Corporation Holdings around the word:
* Sports: LA Dodgers, LA Kings, LA Lakers, National Rugby League.
* Ansett Australia airline, Ansett New Zealand airlines.
* Rupert Murdoch is on the Board of Directors of Philip Morris, a major Bush donor.
17. Contemporary World Media
It's no surprise that corporate robber baron Rupert Murdoch is a major Bush supporter but who else
owns Fox News? Prince al-Walid bin Talal owns 5.5% of Fox News.
Prince al- Walid bin Talal stated recently that he used his influence to change Fox's headlines.
During the recent riots in Muslim neighborhoods in France Fox was using the term "Muslim Riots"
to describe rioting by Muslim youths and Prince bin Talal claims that called Fox News had them
change the title of the story to "Youth Riots". Source. worldnetdaily.com
In another instance, where supposedly conservative Fox News should have been up in arms, was the
deal by a United Arab Emirates holding company to buy U.S. ports. Suddenly Fox went from being
against the deal to very supportive of a deal that would have put US container ports in foreign hands.
A U.A.E. sovereign wealth fund also owns major shares of Fox.
The "good ole boys" that hang on every word that Sean Hannity and Bill O'Reilly utters might not be
so happy when they hear who is whispering in their idol's ears.
The Council On Foreign Relations and What It Has To Do With Corporate Control Of The News
What do Dan Rather, Barbara Walters, Jim Lehrer, Rupert Murdoch, Tom Brokaw and the late
William F. Buckley have in common? They are all members of the CFR, The Council On Foreign
Relations. The stated goal of the CFR is to manipulate the News to bring about a new world order or
corporate control of everything. This is not some weird conspiracy theory, it is stated in their original
charter. Who else belongs to the CFR, Disney's Michael Eisner and ABC's Thomas Murphy, Tom
Johnson, CEO of CNN, Time Warner's Gerald Levine, and many, many more media CEO's who
have merged their empires under the CFR's guidance. [It should not be surprising that most of the
persons named here happen to be Jewish and unabashed supporters and promoters of every policy
or little desire of the Israeli government in the USA, using media. There is a well known link between
Jewish media, reporters and column writers and launching of the U.S. pre-emptive war in Iraq and
Afghanistan. The role of the Saudi Princes in US media is a speck of sand compare to the
overwhelming stranglehold of Jewish control on US and even global media – Ed.]
There is a good video that traces the history of news media manipulation by large corporations in the
U.S by buying up newspapers and using institutions such as the Council On Foreign Relations to
shape U.S. policy and public opinion.
Message to US citizens: Freedom of the press is vital to our democracy. We need to prevent things
like media consolidation, where one company is allowed to own all the news outlets in any given
market. Speak up and stop the corporate robber barons and the CFR from taking that right away from
us. Contact your senators at www.senate.gov and let them know you are fed up with large
corporations and foreign interests gobbling up our news media.
18. Contemporary World Media
Profile of Major Media Giants
CNN (Cable News Network)
CNN, the original cable television news service, reached approximately 100.1 million U.S. television
households as of December 2010. As of December 31, 2010, CNN managed 47 news bureaus and
editorial operations, of which 15 are located in the U.S. In the fall of 2010, CNN’s programs
included American Morning, The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer, John King, USA, Parker Spitzer,
Larry King Live and Anderson Cooper 360™. Piers Morgan Tonight replaced Larry King Live in
January 2011. HLN, the “news and views” service, reached approximately 99.8 million U.S.
television households as of December 2010. In the fall of 2010, HLN’s programs included Morning
Express with Robin Meade, Issues with Jane Velez-Mitchell, Nancy Grace, The Joy Behar Show and
Showbiz Tonight. Comparative figures for December 2007 were: CNN and CNN Headline News
networks, 24-hour per day cable television news services, reached approximately 96.4 million U.S.
television households and 95.9 million U.S. television households, respectively. A high definition
feed of CNN is also available. As of December 31, 2007, CNN managed 39 news bureaus and
editorial operations, of which 10 are located in the U.S. and 29 are located around the world. CNN
International reached more than 200 countries and territories as of the end of 2007. Also see Time
Warner in another section, for more details about the parent company.
On its web site, BBC has the following description of its mission and operations. Building on the
foundation that is to ‘inform, educate and entertain’, the BBC has six public purposes – outlined here
– which provide a focus for us to create memorable content and great services, and to offer everyone
in the UK an experience of the BBC that truly makes a difference to their lives. Four of the BBC’s
public purposes are:
Sustaining citizenship and civil society: the BBC’s journalism has an unparalleled global standing
in newsgathering, specialist expertise and analysis, eyewitness reportage, professional presentation
and high-profile interviews – bringing trusted, independent and high-quality journalism to our
audiences that explains the stories that matter to them. Our UK-wide, international, national and
local channels and services cover a wide range of stories tailored for specific audiences, and
supported by our flagship domestic channel BBC News. Fresh this year is our 8pm weekday
summary on BBC One, which has successfully increased the reach of our news content to younger
audiences. We also have a strong commitment to cover and explain UK democratic processes,
including the devolved institutions and the Westminster parliament, giving context and analysis to
help build a greater understanding. Local and Nations’ services are primary outlets for holding local
politicians to account.
19. Contemporary World Media
Promoting education and learning: the BBC promotes and supports formal and informal education
for children, teenagers and adults – including children’s radio output on BBC 7 that builds
knowledge, skills and confidence. Enabling people to learn about new topics, or more about an
existing passion, in ways they will find engaging, entertaining and challenging is fundamental to
what the BBC does.
Bringing the UK to the world and the world to the UK: the BBC’s global news services provided
independent and internationally-respected news and analysis to audiences around the world. We also
sell content and formats like Strictly Come Dancing and The Weakest Link in the global marketplace.
We also bring in or partner in content to inform debate within the UK on significant world issues.
Sunday mornings on BBC Parliament this year saw extensive coverage and analysis of the US
Presidential primaries. Radio 2 and Radio 3 covered major music festivals and performance –
including Glastonbury, T in the Park and opera from New York’s Metropolitan Opera House. BBC
Four remains the home of international film on British television.
Taking a leading role in the switchover to digital television: digital switchover is now under way
in the UK. The BBC will continue to promote and deliver the benefit of emerging communications
technologies and services – such as Freeview, Freesat and the recently launched BBC iPlayer and
HDTV – to all audiences. On the following pages you will find the stories of some individuals’
relationships with the BBC this year. Every one of them can be tracked back to ‘inform, educate and
Around 2 million people in the UK have face to face contact with the BBC each year. We find out
what the remaining 58 million or so like and expect through extensive market research and
analysis.A typical Top Gear viewer does have a stake in the outcome and might say the following:
I never think about it, but I guess my dealings with the BBC change all the time. Its always been
there, but I watch it nowadays with a more critical eye. I expect my 40p or so license fee each day to
guarantee me top quality programmes with the best ideas and the best talent. Plus, I want them to be
relevant to me and my life, and that s not just about programmes but also about how I take them. At
home in the mornings breakfast radio sets me up for the day, and in the car I listen to Radio 5 live.
And at weekends, when I m likely to be out and about, I download Fighting Talk to my MP3. Then I
can listen when I want on the bus into town, or waiting for the girlfriend to get ready though it only
lasts an hour... Every week without fail I now also stream Top Gear, of course, Match of the Day and
The Apprentice. BBC iPlayer makes the BBC fit in with me.
Last year the license fee was £135.50 per household it s the same whether you live alone or as part
of a large family. The TV license funds the majority of the BBC s public service broadcast channels:
ten television channels, ten UK wide network radio stations (including five on digital only), 46
nations and local radio services, plus regional opts on BBC One, BBC Two, Radio 1 and on five
English local radio stations. In addition, it pays for bbc.co.uk, interactive services on BBCi, and the
new BBC iPlayer and HDTV offers. We invest the money in activities as immediate as daily radio
magazine programmes as well as long term in the infrastructure that will support British
broadcasting for the future. We offer something for everyone, with services free of adverts and
independent of advertisers, shareholders or political interests.
20. Contemporary World Media
BBC World Service is funded by government grant and not the TV license fee. Profits from separate
BBC commercial services help to keep the license fee low. 93% of the UK population watched BBC
television, listened to BBC radio or used BBC online services on average every week last year.
g l o b a l n e w s s e r v i c e – t e l e v i s i o n
BBC news audiences value and demand impartiality – the cornerstone of the BBC ’s reputation
around the world. The BBC Trust makes sure editorial standards are of the highest quality. Ensuring
impartiality is a key priority for us. Separate operational areas manage the day to day working of the
BBC. These include the Director-General's Office and BBC Direction Group, Audio and Music,
BBC North, Finance and Business, Future Media, News Group, Operations and Vision. See brief
description of each area below.
The BBC is established under a Royal Charter. The current Charter came into force in 2007 and runs
until the end of 2016. It explicitly recognizes the BBC's editorial independence and sets out its public
Under the Charter, the BBC is governed by the BBC Trust, which sets the strategic direction of the
BBC and has a clear duty to represent the interests of licence fee payers. The Trust sets purpose
remits, issues service licences and holds the Executive Board to account for its performance in
delivering BBC services.
The Trust works closely with national Audience Councils in order to understand the needs and
concerns of audiences.
21. Contemporary World Media
Operational areas of the BBC
The Executive Board is responsible for operational management of BBC services.
BBC Direction Group
The Direction Group has overall responsibility for management and running of the BBC.
BBC Vision is responsible for all of the BBC's television channels.
Audio and Music
BBC Audio & Music is responsible for all of the BBC's national radio networks.
The News Group comprises BBC News, English Regions and BBC Global News.
Future Media is responsible for all of the BBC's digital media services.
The BBC North Group includes BBC Sport, Children's and 5 Live.
The Operations Group is responsible for operational running of the BBC.
Finance and Business
BBC Finance & Business manages all aspects of the BBC's finances
The BBC also has three commercial subsidiaries, BBC Worldwide, BBC Studios and Post
Production and BBC World News.
22. Contemporary World Media
In March 2010, the BBC published its strategy review Putting Quality First, in response to key
challenges set by the BBC Trust. Under this strategy we have set five clear content priorities and will
focus on providing audiences with: the best journalism in the world; inspiring knowledge, culture
and music; ambitious UK drama and comedy; outstanding children's content; and events that bring
communities and the nation together.
This year's Statements of Programme Policy (SoPPs) are the first steps on the road to delivering this
new strategic ambition, which will lead to an additional £600million a year towards higher quality
content by 2013/2014. These SoPPs set out the BBC's editorial priorities for each of our services and
also include the BBC's commitments and conditions set out in service licenses and by Ofcom.
2010 will see the election of a new Parliament in Westminster and our journalism across television,
radio and online will seek to explain the issues and reflect the campaign from the point of view of
voters throughout the UK. We will also continue to provide a wide range of business coverage to
give our audiences greater insight and advice as the British economy continues to face the aftermath
of the financial crisis.
This year we will look to engage mainstream audiences with serious factual content and new
approaches in natural history, with programmes such as BBC One's Lost Land series. Modern
Masters is a BBC One arts offering presented by a new arts specialist, who will bring a fresh
approach to the subject matter. BBC Four will continue to grow the impact of arts and culture with
The Secret Life of Opera, and on Radio 2 arts programming will be strengthened, including a series
on the histories of both musicals and cabaret in Musical Theatre.
World Of Wonder is the BBC's Year Of Science in 2010/2011. On television BBC One will refresh
Child Of Our Time, while on BBC Two The Story Of Science will reveal how scientific method
shaped the modern world. Radio 4 will contribute with a range of programmes fostering public
engagement with science, including So You Want To Be A Scientist? And Saving Species, by the
Natural History Unit, will be a 40-part landmark biodiversity series in the UN Year of Biodiversity.
In drama, BBC Two will seek to deliver a greater range and more hours of original drama, with more
impact on audiences, as well as being the new home of BBC Films. New commissions include a
short season of dramas inspired by the Eighties, including Abi Morgan's Royal Wedding. BBC Three
will build on the success of Being Human by experimenting with four new drama pilots featuring
vibrant young casts.
BBC One will look to revitalize mainstream family comedy by funding a series of pilots and
experimenting with innovative formats beyond the classic situation comedy, such as Mrs Brown and
a new comedy drama Pink Ladies. BBC Three will continue its role in finding up-and-coming
comedians in Funny Fifteen Seconds. Bringing the nation together will see BBC One leading the
multi-platform coverage of the World Cup in South Africa.
Our commitment to outstanding children's content remains as strong as ever. Music will sit at the
heart of pre-school programming on CBeebies with ZingZillas, stimulating children's creativity and
inspiring their imagination. In addition to the return of CBBC's most popular shows such as Tracy
Beaker, there will be new dramas including Sadie Jones, Just William and Me And My Monsters.
Radio 2 will seek to consolidate Chris Evans's role at breakfast, alongside Simon Mayo in the drive
time programme. Radio 3 will challenge some traditional perceptions of classical music with high-
profile opportunities for participation in music-making, bringing people together. In Local Radio we
will maintain or improve reach by focusing effort and resources on breakfast and mid-morning
programmes, subject to BBC Trust consideration under the strategy review.
23. Contemporary World Media
Audience: 134 million weekly Budget: $190.2 million (FY 2008)
Media: radio, television, and the Internet Headquarters: Washington, D.C.
Languages: 45 Employees: more than 1,100
The BBC performed well last year, maintaining overall reach in television and radio and with growth
in online. I believe that the editorial priorities and related activities set out for 2010/2011 in these
SoPPs will make this another exciting year for the BBC and its audiences.
The Voice of America (VOA)
The Voice of America, which first went on the air in 1942, is a multimedia international broadcasting
service funded by the U.S. Government through the Broadcasting Board of Governors. VOA
broadcasts approximately 1,500 hours of news, information, educational, and cultural programming
every week to an estimated worldwide audience of 134 million people.
Mission: To broadcast accurate, balanced, and comprehensive news and information to an
Facilities: 27 radio broadcast studios, 33 production and recording studios, 30 professional audio
mixing and dubbing stations, 4 television studios, 21 video editing suites, and facilities for master
control, recording, scheduling, and feed intake.
History: Broadcasts began in 1942, to get reliable news to people living in closed and war-torn
Since 1942, the Voice of America has built a global reputation as a consistently reliable source of
news and information. Accuracy, balance, comprehensiveness, and objectivity are attributes
audiences around the world have come to expect of VOA broadcasters and their product. These
standards are legally mandated in the VOA Charter (Public Laws 94-350 and 103-415). Because of
them, VOA has become an inspiration and information lifeline to nations and peoples around the
Adhering to the principles outlined in the Charter, VOA reporters and broadcasters must strive for
24. Contemporary World Media
accuracy and objectivity in all their work. They do not speak for the U.S. government. They accept
no treatment or assistance from U.S. government officials or agencies that is more favorable or less
favorable than that granted to staff of private-sector news agencies. Furthermore, VOA
professionals, careful to preserve the integrity of their organization, strive for excellence and avoid
imbalance or bias in their broadcasts.
The Voice of America pursues its mission today in a world conflict-ridden and unstable in the post
Cold War era. Broadcasting accurate, balanced and complete information to the people of the
world, and particularly to those who are denied access to accurate news, serves the national interest
and is a powerful source of inspiration and hope for all those who believe in freedom and
All staff who report, manage, edit, and prepare programming at VOA in both central and language
services therefore subscribe to these principles:
VOA news and programming must be rigorously sourced and verified. VOA normally requires a
minimum of two independent (non-VOA) sources before any news writer, background writer,
political affairs writer, correspondent, or stringer may broadcast information as fact in any
The only exceptions to the double-source requirement are facts directly confirmed by a VOA
journalist, or significant news drawn from an official announcement of a nation or an organization.
In those rare instances when a secondary source offers exclusive significant news (e.g., a verified
news agency exclusive interview with a chief of state or prominent newsmaker), this story is
attributed to the originating agency by name.
Accuracy and Balance
Accuracy and balance are paramount, and together, they are VOA's highest priority. Accuracy
always comes before speed in VOA central service and language programming. VOA has a legal
obligation to present a comprehensive description of events, reporting an issue in a reliable and
unbiased way. Though funded by the U.S. government, VOA airs all relevant facts and opinions on
important news events and issues. VOA corrects errors or omissions in its own broadcasts at the
VOA is alert to, and rejects, efforts by special interest groups, foreign or domestic, to use its
broadcasts as a platform for their own views. This applies to all programs and program segments,
including opinion or press roundups, programs discussing letters, listener comments, or call-in
shows. In the case of call-ins, views of a single party must be challenged by the interviewer if
alternative opinions are unrepresented. In interviews, points of possible discussion are submitted in
advance if requested by an interviewee of stature (e.g., a chief of state). However, VOA journalists
always retain the right and responsibility to pursue newsworthy angles, including entirely fresh
25. Contemporary World Media
lines of questioning, during such interviews.
Whenever VOA reports a charge or accusation made by an individual or a group against another, or
presents one side of a controversial issue, a response and/or balancing information will be included
in the first use of a news item or feature containing that material. If the balancing information
cannot be obtained by the program deadline, or the subject of the charge declines to comment, that
will be made clear in VOA's account, and the balancing material will be broadcast as soon as it is
VOA has, in the words of the Founding Fathers, "a decent respect for the opinions of mankind."
VOA is required to present a full and fair account of events. VOA broadcasters evaluate
information solely on its merits, rejecting incitements to violence, sensationalism, personal value
judgments, or misleading emphases. Attributions are specific and complete.
VOA journalists (including correspondents, news and language stringers, political affairs writers,
and program hosts) avoid at all times the use of unattributed pejorative terms or labels to describe
persons or organizations, except when the individuals and groups use those labels to describe
themselves or their activities.
In news, features, and current affairs programming, VOA broadcasters will meticulously avoid
fabricating, distorting, or dramatizing an event. If sound at an event illustrates the reporter's
account of that event and is edited for time, the remaining sound effect reflects what occurred in an
accurate and balanced way. If there is a risk of misleading the audience, no use will be made of
sound effects not actually recorded at the event being described.
Context and Comprehensiveness
VOA presents a comprehensive account of America and the world, and puts events in context. That
means constant vigilance to reflect America's, and the world's, political, geographical, cultural,
ethnic, religious, and social diversity. VOA programming represents the broadcast team's best
effort to seek out and present a comprehensive account of the event or trend being reported.
VOA broadcasters will avoid using announcing or interviewing techniques that add political
coloration or bias to their reportage or current affairs programming. Music will not be used to make
editorial statements. VOA journalists and all those preparing news and feature programming avoid
any action or statement that might convey the appearance of partisanship.
When performing official duties, VOA broadcasters leave their personal political views behind.
The accuracy, quality, and credibility of the Voice of America are its most important assets, and
they rest on listeners' perception of VOA as an objective source of world, regional, and U.S. news
and information. To that end, all VOA journalists will:
26. Contemporary World Media
1. Always travel on regular, non-diplomatic passports, and rely no more and no less than private-
sector correspondents on U.S. missions abroad for support, as set out in the guidelines for VOA
2. Assist managers whose duty is to ensure that no VOA employee, contract employee, or stringer
works for any other U.S. government agency, any official media of another state, or any
international organization, without specific VOA authorization.
3. Adhere strictly to copyright laws and agency regulations and always credit the source when
quoting, paraphrasing, or excerpting from other broadcasting organizations, books, periodicals or
any print media.
In addition to these journalistic standards and principles, VOA employees recognize that their
conduct both on and off the job can reflect on the work of the Voice of America community. They
adhere to the highest standards of journalistic professionalism and integrity. They work to foster
teamwork, goodwill, and civil discourse in the workplace and with their colleagues everywhere in
the world, all to enhance the credibility and effectiveness of the Voice of America.
We transmit approximately 1,500 hours of programs each week.
• 25 of VOA's 45 languages broadcast on television.
• Program content includes news, features, education, and
culture, in documentary, discussion, and call-in formats,
both live and pre-recorded.
• VOA has a growing worldwide network of more than
1,200 local affiliate stations, which include FM and
medium wave (MW or AM) radio stations, television
stations and networks, and cable systems.
• VOA's 30,000 square foot News center is staffed
24 hours a day, 365 days a year, providing between
150 and 200 news reports per day for all language
services and programs.
• There are also 22 domestic and 16 overseas
correspondents, in addition to more than 90 part-
time reporters, called "stringers".
VOA and Technology
• VOA has the largest integrated digital audio system in
•A network of transmitting stations operated by the international Broadcasting Bureau, along with
some leased stations, sends VOA's programs instantaneously around the world.
• The website, www.VOANews.com, provides a wide range of English-language news reports and
serves as a portal to homepages of all 45 languages broadcast by VOA, as well as other information
The VOA Charter
President Gerald Ford signed the
VOA Charter into law in 1976. It
protects the independence and
integrity of VOA programming.
1. VOA will serve as a consistently
reliable and authoritative source of
news. VOA news will be accurate,
objective, and comprehensive.
2. VOA will represent America, not
any single segment of American
society, and will therefore present a
balanced and comprehensive
projection of significant American
thought and institutions.
3. VOA will present the policies of the
United States clearly and effectively,
and will also present responsible
discussions and opinion on these
27. Contemporary World Media
• VOANews.com pages feature text, audio/video files on demand, and live-streamed programs.
See VOA Live
• Take a behind-the-scenes look at VOA through our new guided
audio-visual Studio Tour.
• Learn more about our history and the regions to which we
broadcast, and watch news as it happens through live TV and radio
• For reservations or more information, call (202) 203-4990 or visit
Our broadcasts in 45 languages make VOA one of the largest multimedia news organizations
in the world:
Afan Oromo Creole Indonesian Ndebele Swahili
Albanian Croatian Khmer Pashto Thai
Amharic Dari Kinyarwanda Persian Tibetan
Armenian English Kirundi Portuguese Tigrigna
Azerbaijani French Korean Russian Turkish
Bangla Georgian Kurdish Serbian Ukrainian
Bosnian Greek Lao Shona Urdu
Burmese Hausa Macedonian Somali Uzbek
Cantonese Hindi Mandarin Spanish Vietnamese
"The news may be good. The news may be bad. We shall tell you the truth."
- William Harlan Hale, 1st VOA broadcast (1942)
The Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG)
• The BBG is an independent federal agency that
oversees all non-military U.S. international
broadcasting, including the Voice of America.
• The bi-partisan Board is comprised of nine
members, appointed by the President and
confirmed by the Senate, including the Secretary
• Its mission is "To promote and sustain freedom
and democracy by broadcasting accurate and
objective news and information about the United
States and the world to audiences overseas."
Voice of America
Office of Public Affairs
330 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20237
Tel: (202) 203-4959
Fax: (202) 203-4960
download a pdf Fact Sheet
28. Contemporary World Media
Deutsche Welle (VOG)
Deutsche Welle (Voice of Germany) is Germany’s international broadcaster: online, on-screen and
over the air. It provides a European perspective to audiences around the world and promotes
According to its statutory mission, Deutsche Welle will “promote understanding of Germany as an
independent nation with its roots in European culture and as a liberal, democratic, constitutional state
based on the rule of law.” It is also meant to "provide a forum in Europe and on other continents to
German and other points of view on important issues, with the aim of fostering understanding and
exchange between cultures and people.” In addition, it will contribute to promoting the German
Deutsche Welle fulfills this mission with a journalistic portfolio that includes DW-RADIO and the
multimedia Internet portal DW-WORLD.DE in 30 languages and with DW-TV in German, English,
Arabic and Spanish. It also runs the DW-AKADEMIE, where radio professionals from developing
and transition countries receive further training. This will also be developed into a Master’s program
in the future. The DW-AKADEMIE also offers “Intercultural Media Training” for German
executives and institutions looking to go abroad.
The international broadcaster’s services are targeted to people around the world who are interested in
Germany and Europe, particularly to current and future opinion leaders and decision makers.
German programming is directed at those learning German and other individuals with German
language skills. It reaches more than 100 million listeners and viewers worldwide every week. It
receives well over half a million responses to its programming and online services every year and is
respected as a credible source of information.
Deutsche Welle carries out its legally defined mission while remaining journalistically independent.
DW produces and provides media services throughout the world with DW-TV, DW-RADIO, DW-
WORLD.DE and the DW-AKADEMIE.
We produce multilingual media services for a global audience.
We communicate German points of view and global perspectives.
We promote intercultural dialog and work to further international understanding and tolerance.
We communicate the values of democracy and support human rights.
We report independently, comprehensively, truthfully and on a pluralistic basis.
We provide comprehensive and uncensored information to countries that lack free media,
particularly crisis regions and war zones.
We have a cultural mission and present the culture from Germany and Europe.
We pass on our know-how to partners throughout the world.
We use our credibility to promote Germany’s reputation worldwide.
We participate actively in the social discourse in Germany.
Deutsche Welle's Governing Bodies
The Broadcasting Board, the Administrative Board and the Director General are the governing
bodies for DW according to the 1997 "Deutsche Welle law."
The Broadcasting Board shall represent the interests of the general public, advise the Director
General in general programming matters and supervise compliance with the basic principles of
programs. The 17 members are elected, respectively appointed by the federal parliament, the
29. Contemporary World Media
Bundestag, by the Bundesrat and the federal government and by different social groups and
organizations (churches, employer associations, leading union organizations).
The Administrative Board shall supervise the management duties of the Director General,
excluding the preparation and planning of programs. The Board comprises seven members, one
member elected or appointed by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat, as well as one member
by the federal government and four members by different social groups and organizations.
The Director-General, managing DW independently, is solely responsible for the preparation and
planning of programs and for the operating of the corporation as a whole. He/She has to ensure that
programs comply with statutory regulations. The Director-General is elected by the Broadcasting
Board for a term of six years.
Facts and Figures
Deutsche Welle has been broadcasting for more than 55 years now.
It is an innovative media company offering multimedia, worldwide-
accessible news and information in 30 different languages. Deutsche
Welle focuses on the most modern digital technology for production
and broadcast with the help of a multinational team of about 1,500
employees from more than 60 countries. Deutsche Welle broadcasts
multimedia and multilingual information from Germany and Europe. To find out more about
Germany’s international broadcaster, just go to the Chronology or FAQ sections. (Photo: Deutsche
Welle – broadcasting center in Bonn.)
1950s The Beginning
The new Federal Republic discusses the establishment of an international broadcasting service.
1960s Radio Servce
Broadcasting radio programming in foreign languages is approved.
1970s Service Expands
After a decade of rapid expansion, DW-RADIO broadcasts in 29 languages in 1970.
1980s Popular Internationally
Hundreds of hours of programming are broadcast each year.
1990s Focus on Information
DW-RADIO broadcast in areas around the world at the best possible time.
2000 to today: At a Glance:
30. Contemporary World Media
It is targeted to people around the world who are interested in Germany and Europe, particularly to
those who influence important developments in their respective countries. In countries with
authoritarian governments, it is targeted to people who are active supporters of democracy, freedom
and progress. Deutsche Welle also reports on the events taking place in these countries.
It tailors its offers to meet its audience’s needs. People around the world can access its services that
are either offered in the country’s native language or in English. German programming is directed at
those learning German and other individuals with German language skills.
It has been training radio professionals from developing and transition countries for more than 40
years. Starting winter semester 2009/2010, there will be a master’s program offered entitled
“International Media Studies” – a joint project with the University of Bonn, Bonn-Rhein-Sieg
University of Applied Sciences and Deutsche Welle.
It offers intercultural media training for executives from German companies and institutions looking
to go abroad.
It offers young journalists the opportunity to take part in a journalist training program that focuses on
multimedia applications and prepares trainees for work in a foreign-language editorial department.
It is comprised of a team of around 1,500 employees and hundreds of freelancers from more than 60
countries. Its services reach more than 86 million listeners and viewers worldwide each week and is
respected as a credible source of information.
It broadcasts and distributes its programs and services via a global satellite network, partner stations
(rebroadcasting) and on the Internet, where audio and video formats are available as live stream,
podcasts, on-demand and for mobile devices. Radio programming is broadcast on medium wave and
FM in some regions and major cities, as well as shortwave in other areas.
It first went on the air on May 3, 1953.
It is a public broadcaster and is funded by the government from tax revenue. The annual budget is
approximately 275 million euros.
Erik Bettermann has been Director General since 2001. The chairman of the Broadcasting Board is
Valentin Schmidt, President of the Evangelical Church in Germany and the chairman of the
Administrative Board is Peter Clever, member of the Managing Board of the Confederation of
It is headquartered in Bonn, where radio and online content is produced at the broadcasting center in
the former government district. Deutsche Welle’s television services are based in Berlin.
The 24-hour English-language news and current affairs channel, is headquartered in Doha, the
capital of Qatar. The organization is the world's first global English language news channel to be
headquartered in the Middle East. From this unique position, Al Jazeera English is destined to be the
English-language channel of reference for Middle Eastern events, balancing the current typical
information flow by reporting from the developing world back to the West and from the southern to
the northern hemisphere. The channel aims to give voice to untold stories, promote debate, and
challenge established perceptions. With broadcasting centres in Doha, Kuala Lumpur, London and
Washington DC and supporting bureaux worldwide, the channel will set the news agenda, bridging
31. Contemporary World Media
cultures and providing a unique grassroots perspective from under-reported regions around the world
to a potential global audience of over one billion English speakers. The station broadcasts news,
current affairs, features, analysis, documentaries, live debates, entertainment, business and sport.
Building on Al Jazeera Arabic channel's ground breaking developments in the Arab and Muslim
world that have changed the face of news within the Middle East, Al Jazeera English is part of a
growing network that is now extending this fresh perspective from regional to global through
accurate, impartial and objective reporting.
Being a globally oriented media service, Al Jazeera has adopted the following code of ethics in
pursuance of the vision and mission it has set for itself:
1. Adhere to the journalistic values of honesty, courage, fairness, balance, independence, credibility
and diversity, giving no priority to commercial or political considerations over professional ones.
2. Endeavour to get to the truth and declare it in our dispatches, programmes and news bulletins
unequivocally in a manner which leaves no doubt about its validity and accuracy.
3. Treat our audiences with due respect and address every issue or story with due attention to present
a clear, factual and accurate picture while giving full consideration to the feelings of victims of
crime, war, persecution and disaster, their relatives and our viewers, and to individual privacy and
4. Welcome fair and honest media competition without allowing it to affect adversely our standards
of performance so that getting a "scoop" will not become an end in itself.
5. Present diverse points of view and opinions without bias or partiality.
6. Recognize diversity in human societies with all their races, cultures and beliefs and their values
and intrinsic individualities in order to present unbiased and faithful reflection of them.
7. Acknowledge a mistake when it occurs, promptly correct it and ensure it does not recur.
8. Observe transparency in dealing with news and news sources while adhering to internationally
established practices concerning the rights of these sources.
9. Distinguish between news material, opinion and analysis to avoid the pitfalls of speculation and
10. Stand by colleagues in the profession and offer them support when required, particularly in light
of the acts of aggression and harassment to which journalists are subjected at times. Cooperate with
Arab and international journalistic unions and associations to defend freedom of the press.
01-11-2008: Al Jazeera announces the launch of the Public Liberties and Human Rights Desk
24-10-2008: Al Jazeera English responds to the Washington Post's Colbert I King
24-09-2008: Al Jazeera English Signs US Distribution Deal with Link TV
14-06-2008: Al Jazeera English wins 24-hour News Programme award in Monte Carlo
21-02-2008: Al Jazeera English's Hamish MacDonald named best young journalist by RTS
32. Contemporary World Media
10-01-2008: Al Jazeera English Unveils Partnership with Hong Kong Cable
30-11-2007: Al Jazeera English wins more international awards
23-11-2007: Al Jazeera English's programme Everywoman wins "Editors' Award" in London
14-11-2007: Al Jazeera English celebrates one year anniversary
27-09-2007: AJE breaks 100 million barrier and names Phil Lawrie to knock on USA's door
13-08-2007: Blood, Sweat and Tears, the agony of labourers in the Gulf, revealed by AJE
23-07-2007: AJE exclusive interview with Red Mosque leader Abdul Rashid Ghazi
04-07-2007: Exclusive interview: Sheikh Saleh Dughmush airs today Witness: 'Hostage In Gaza'
15-06-2007: Al Jazeera English wins more creative awards
07-06-2007: Crossroads Europe - A new four part series presented by Elizabeth Filippouli
31-05-2007: Al Jazeera English to go live on DStv channel 62 on 31 May
16-04-2007: Al Jazeera English to become available on YouTube
09-04-2007: Al Jazeera English announces carriage deal with Digiturk
The Associated Press (AP)
The Associated Press is the backbone of the world's information system serving thousands of daily
newspaper, radio, television and online customers with coverage in all media and news in all
formats. It is the largest and oldest news organization in the world, serving as a source of news,
photos, graphics, audio and video.
AP's mission is to be the essential global news network, providing distinctive news services of the
highest quality, reliability and objectivity with reports that are accurate, balanced and informed. AP
operates as a not-for-profit cooperative with more than 4,000 employees working in more than
240 worldwide bureaus. AP is owned by its 1,500 U.S. daily newspaper members. They elect a
board of directors that directs the cooperative.
AP supplies a steady stream of news around the clock to its domestic members, international
subscribers and commercial customers. It has the industry's most sophisticated digital photo network,
a 24-hour continuously updated online news service, a state-of-the-art television news service and
one of the largest radio networks in the United States. It also has a commercial digital photo archive,
a photo library housing more than 10 million images.
33. Contemporary World Media
AP has received 49 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other news organization in the categories for
which it can compete. It has 30 photo Pulitzers, the most of any news organization.
The Associated Press is the essential global news network, delivering fast, unbiased news from every
corner of the world to all media platforms and formats. Founded in 1846, AP today is the largest and
most trusted source of independent news and information. On any given day, more than half the
world's population sees news from AP.
Basic Facts about AP:
243 bureaus in 97 countries.
1,700 U.S. daily, weekly, non-English and college newspapers.
5,000 radio and television outlets taking AP services.
850 AP Radio News audio affiliates.
550 International broadcasters who receive AP's global video news service, APTN, and SNTV, a
sports joint venture video service.
121 number of countries served by AP
4 languages in which AP sends news. The report is translated into many more languages by
4,100 AP editorial, communications and administrative employees worldwide.
3,000 of AP's worldwide staff are journalists.
49 Pulitzer Prizes, including 30 for photography.
The AP news report is:
24 hours a day
7 days a week
(Updated April. 16, 2007)
The Associated Press employs some of the best and most experienced journalists in the world. Each
is dedicated to the same standards — fairness, balance and accuracy. With a robust network of more
than 3,700 employees around the world, AP provides breaking news coverage and compelling
enterprise pieces that can’t be found anywhere else.
AP’s news report reflects the full breadth of international, national, state, sports, business and
entertainment news and AP’s specialized coverage is widely used at length on newspaper section
fronts across the United States and around the world.
Member Choice is a new pricing and content packaging program that simplifies and broadens
member access to AP content. Under Member Choice, AP is expanding its value for newspapers,
both in print and online. Coverage is being increased in key target areas of growth, enhancing the
ability of newspapers to create custom news reports relevant to their local and niche audiences.
Flexible new licensing will enable them to use AP content in a wide range of local publications and
the technological tools to do all these things are being provided. Learn more at www.ap.org/choice
34. Contemporary World Media
AP Exchange is a powerful online tool that offers newspaper editors and reporters access to AP’s
vast pool of content – with the ability to search, scan and download -- so they can create the AP
report that is the most meaningful to their beat, story or market.
is the broadcast industry’s leading provider of text, audio, video, production facilities, graphics,
photos, and broadcast technology around the world.
Associated Press Television News — APTN — is the world’s largest video news agency, and the
international video news arm of The Associated Press.
With over 80 bureaus worldwide, linked by a network of global satellites, APTN provides the
world’s most reliable, prompt, and accurate breaking video news, sports, and entertainment content
to over 500 broadcast newsrooms, portals, Web, broadband and mobile customers worldwide
AP Archive is the moving image collection of the Associated Press. With over 500,000 stories within
our database on everything from news to entertainment to sport to the natural world, we can provide
the pictures you want in your production.
The Associated Press puts power, control and flexibility in the hands of broadcast journalists with
ENPS, the world's leading news production system. Introduced in 1997, ENPS is now used by nearly
500 newsrooms in 42 countries.
ENPS combines intuitive functionality, integration features, unparalleled language support and
continuing product evolution to help production of news programming become more efficient.
Developed by and for journalists, ENPS fits the changing needs of all types of demanding news
is a division of The Associated Press that provides news and information to Web sites, wireless
operators, corporate and government desktops, information distributors and other commercial and
new media applications.
With multimedia production resources and the ability to deliver information on a variety of
technology platforms, AP Digital offers immediate access to breaking international, national and
local news and topical features and creates interactive products using AP text, photos, graphics,
audio and video and selected information from content partners. AP’s dynamic product portfolio also
includes targeted industry-specific news packages and custom content categories that meet the
information needs of specific audiences. Services are offered in English, Spanish, French, Dutch and
Featured services for Web sites and wireless services:
AP Video Services
News videos produced by Associated Press Television News (APTN) are available through an online
feed or hosted platform for Web sites and interactive services. Clips cover U.S. and international
news, politics, entertainment, business and human-interest stories, plus daily one-minute world news
and financial markets summaries.
AP Financial News
An enhanced business news service offering detailed US company and world market news, quarterly
earnings announcements, coverage of executive changes, regulatory actions, mergers and
acquisitions and new product developments for major companies in a full range of industries. AP
Financial News goes beyond the top stories of the day to offer reliable, readable breaking coverage
of top companies and financial markets around the world.
35. Contemporary World Media
The Associated Press has received 30 photo Pulitzers, the most of any news organization. AP
delivers more than 1,000 photos a day from journalists recording news as it happens around the
world. AP photos are an important part of modern-day world history - for more than a century, AP
photographers have captured the greatest moments in history, news, sports and entertainment.
AP's digital photo archive includes millions of historical and contemporary images from The
Associated Press and a variety of content partners. The AP photo library holds an estimated 11
million negatives and prints dating back over a century.
One of the world's largest collections of historical and contemporary imagery:
AP Images is the world’s largest bank of historical and recent photos. AP Images provides instant
access to AP's iconic images and adds new images every minute of every day from every corner of
the world, making it an essential source of photos and graphics for professional image buyers and
AP Images Services
Staffed by experienced professionals, AP Images offers a variety of services including custom photo
research and assignment photography.
Associated Press Multimedia Archive provides over one million photographs dating back to 1826
and as current as a few hours ago, tens of thousands of graphics, audio files dating from the 1920's
and news stories dating from 1997. Access Associated Press Multimedia Archive
“We are the leading source of intelligent information for the world’s businesses and professionals,
providing customers with competitive advantage. Intelligent information is a unique synthesis of
human intelligence, industry expertise and innovative technology that provides decision-makers with
the knowledge to act, enabling them to make better decisions faster. Through more than 50,000
people across 93 countries, we deliver this must have insight to the financial, legal, tax and
accounting, healthcare, science and media markets, powered by the world’s most trusted news
organization. We are organized in two divisions:
• Markets, which consists of our financial and media businesses; and
• Professional, which consists of our legal, tax and accounting, healthcare and science businesses.”
Reuters, our news and media brand, reaches an estimate of over one billion people every day.
Reuters Media provides indispensable news and information tailored for media and business
professionals. Reuters Media drives decision-making around the globe with speed, accuracy and
independence. Reuters News is powered by more than 2,500 journalists reporting from 197 bureaus
around the world. Reuters News provides the world’s largest media companies with text, pictures
and video through our wholesale news service, delivering fast, accurate, objective coverage of
important international and domestic news in 20 languages. As of December 31, 2008, our team of
more than 600 photographers and editors worked around the globe and distributed up to 15,000
36. Contemporary World Media
pictures every day, covering breaking news, features, entertainment, business and sports. This
flagship service is indispensable for newspapers and broadcasters seeking a fast and highly reliable
service. Our digital multimedia products offer prioritized online reports, online video and online
pictures for digital platforms. Our teams of specialized editors bring together the latest breaking
news in ready-to-publish and multimedia formats organized by independent news category modules.
Our Consumer Publishing products include the advertising supported, direct-to-consumer publishing
activities of Reuters.com and its global network of websites, mobile services, online video and
electronic out-of-home displays.
In 2008, the Reuters.com family of websites attracted an average of 51 million visitors per month.
Our Consumer Publishing provides more in-depth information through online, traditional magazines,
conferences and networking events for financial professionals. Our Professional Publishing’s suite of
products and services address capital markets information needs, including the weekly in-depth
coverage of International Financing Review (IFR), the search ability and functionality of our online
products, and realtime, minute-by-minute commentary and analysis of IFR Markets. All of these are
complemented by a highly-targeted range of market intelligence reports and conferences.
Major competitors of Media include the Associated Press, Agence France-Presse, Dow Jones and
Bloomberg News. Competitors of Media’s consumer products and services include WSJ.com,
Bloomberg.com, Forbes.com, Yahoo! Finance, CNN, Money, FT.com, Euromoney and Informa
Major Product Categories Type of Product/Service Target Customers Text newswires Instant
coverage of global news and events plus feature stories, analyses and essential news planning tools
Newspapers, television and cable networks, radio stations and websites.
Video: Video relating to breaking news, sports, financial and general news Newspapers, television
and cable networks and websites Pictures and graphics Up-to-the-minute news photographs and an
online photo archive Newspapers, websites, advertising agencies, television and cable networks.
Digital multimedia Prioritized, ready-to-publish online reports, online video and online pictures
Websites Reuters.com Direct-to-consumer publishing and network of regional sites, online video and
electronic out-of-home display Business professionals.
Real-time financial markets commentary and analysis IFR Markets, Dealwatch Trading
professionals, research analysts and portfolio managers Magazines and online publications
International Financing Review (IFR), Project Finance, International, Buyouts, PE Week,
Acquisitions, Monthly and Venture Capital Journal, Investment bankers, corporate finance and
private equity professionals Conferences and events Annual awards, editorially-driven conferences
and roundtables, Advisors, companies and investors.
Historical events at Reuters (latest first):
37. Contemporary World Media
Thomson Reuters launches a new federal government initiative that will work across the company,
developing information solutions and services tailored to the unique needs of U.S. government
The Thomson Corporation and Reuters Group PLC combine to form Thomson Reuters.
The Thomson Corporation and Reuters Group PLC announce that they are in discussions for the
combination of their two businesses.
Thomson completes sale of higher education, careers and library reference assets of Thomson
Kenneth R. Thomson, former chairman of the Board of The Thomson Corporation, dies at the age of
Thomson Healthcare acquires Solucient, a leading healthcare information provider of data and
advanced analytics that hospitals and health systems use to improve performance and lower costs.
Thomson Scientific acquires Scholar One, web-based workflow solution for authoring, evaluating
and publishing research to more than two million users.
Thomson Financial acquires Quantitative Analytics, Inc., a leading provider of database integration
and analysis solutions to the financial services industry.
Thomson Healthcare acquires MercuryMD, Inc., the leading provider of mobile information systems
serving the healthcare market.
Reuters launches the first news bureau in the virtual world of Second Life.
Reuters launches two products that allow its news output to be "read" by machines for the purposes
of automated trading for the first time.
Thomson Financial partnered with Merrill Lynch to complete the rollout of more than 23,000
workstations across more than 550 Merrill Lynch offices.
Thomson acquires Global Securities Information, Inc., a leading provider of online securities and
securities-related information and research services.
Thomson acquires Tax Partners®, LLC, the nation's largest sales and use tax compliance service
firm enabling Thomson to offer end-to-end sales and use tax solutions.
Thomson introduces the launch of Thomson Pharma bringing an indispensable information solution
to the workflow of the drug discovery and development process.
Reuters transfers its London headquarters from Fleet Street to Canary Wharf. All London employees,
including editorial, are brought into one building.
Reuters acquires Action Images, a specialist sports photography agency, a deal designed to continue
the expansion of Reuters global picture business.
Reuters takes major steps into next generation trading with the launch of:
Partnership with the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME), linking sell-side traders in the interbank
FX market to CME eFX market
Reuters Trading for Fixed Income
Reuters Trading for Foreign Exchange
Thomson acquires Information Holdings Inc., a provider of intellectual property and regulatory
information for the scientific, legal, and corporate markets to further advance its capability to
develop pharmaceutical and intellectual property solutions.
Thomson acquires TradeWeb, a fast-growing and leading online global trading platform for fixed-
38. Contemporary World Media
Thomson sells Thomson Media group, comprised of leading print-based information products, to
Thomson acquires CCBN, a provider of web-based solutions for the investment community, to
further expand its offerings for the corporate communications market.
Thomson sells DBM (Drake Beam Morin), which was acquired along with other Harcourt assets in
2001, to Compass Partners International Limited.
Thomson sells print-based healthcare magazines.
Thomson acquires Elite Information Group, a leading provider of integrated practice and financial
management applications for legal and professional services markets
Thomson sells its 20% interest in Bell Globemedia Inc. for $279 million to The Woodbridge
Company Limited. The sale of Bell Globemedia, including the Corporation's interest in The Globe
and Mail, is the culmination of the Thomson strategy to exit the newspaper business undertaken in
Reuters launches Reuters Knowledge opening up a new market on the buy-side of the financial
Thomson announces $300 million+ five-year deal with Merrill Lynch to develop and implement a
new financial workstation to support Merrill Lynch Financial Advisors -- most significant
information solutions deal of its kind in the financial services industry.
Thomson acquires Current Drugs a global leader in the delivery of information solutions to the
pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries
Thomson common share offering raises US$1 billion.
Thomson begins trading on New York Stock Exchange under the symbol TOC.
David K.R. Thomson appointed Chairman of The Thomson Corporation.
Thomson acquires Gardiner-Caldwell, a leading global medical education and communication
Reuters launches Reuters Messaging, a reliable, high-security, high-speed instant messaging service
developed specifically for the global financial services industry. Developed by Reuters and
Microsoft and more than 30 financial institutions, the service allows financial professionals to
communicate instantly with their colleagues and customers.
Thomson acquires NewsEdge Corporation, a global provider of real-time news and information.
Thomson acquires select higher education and corporate training businesses of Harcourt General.
Thomson acquires FindLaw, the leader in free online legal information and services.
The Globe and Mail becomes part of Bell Globemedia, a Canadian multimedia company, in which
The Thomson Corporation holds a 20% ownership position.
Thomson sells community newspaper assets in North America for approximately 2.5 billion
Thomson acquires La Ley, a leading legal publisher in Argentina.
Thomson acquires Primark, a leading provider of financial and economic information products and
solutions to customers worldwide.
Thomson acquires Carson Group, a financial information services firm focused on corporate
strategic intelligence and investor relations solutions.
Thomson acquires IOB, one of Brazil's leading regulatory publishers.
Thomson acquires online business of Dialog, a leading worldwide provider of online-based
Reuters announces major initiatives to exploit the Internet and open new markets, reinforced by Joint
Ventures in communications, wireless delivery and investment research.
39. Contemporary World Media
Thomson acquires Editorial Aranzadi S.A., Spain's premier legal publisher.
Reuters completes its euro currency conversion programme, involving 4 billion changes affecting a
quarter of a million financial instruments. Some 700 engineers, developers, data specialists and
customer service staff worked 300 man-years on the project and cost £10 million.
Reuters and Dow Jones announce agreement to combine their interactive business services for the
corporate and professional markets in a joint venture called Factiva.
Thomson nets US$2 billion from sale of Thomson Travel.
Reuters acquires Lipper Analytical Services, a leading fund performance measurement company, and
Liberty, a company specialising in order routing and management, in moves opening the way for
Reuters to develop these two areas of business.
Richard J. Harrington named President and Chief Executive Officer.
Thomson acquires West Publishing, a leading US provider of legal information.
Reuters launches the 3000 series, a package of Securities, Treasury and Money products giving
customers access to a historical information as well as real-time news and data.
Thomson divests interests in UK newspapers.
Thomson acquires Peterson's, a leading provider of information about U.S. colleges and universities.
Reuters Greenhouse Fund is set up to invest in hi-tech start-ups giving Reuters access to new
Thomson acquires Information Access Company, a US provider of broad-based reference and
Thomson acquires The Medstat Group, a US provider of healthcare information databases and
decision support software.
Reuters Financial Television Service for the financial markets is launched, providing traders live
coverage of market moving events on their trading screens.
Thomson acquires MICROMEDEX, a leading information provider in the fields of healthcare,
toxicology, and environmental health.
Thomson acquires Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), a leading provider of information for
Reuters launches Dealing 2000, acting as a broker for the first international computerised matching
service for foreign exchange rates.
Thomson Newspapers merges with International Thomson to form The Thomson Corporation.
Thomson acquires Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Company, a US legal publisher, and its
subsidiary, Research Institute of America, an information provider for accountants, tax, and human
Thomson disposes of interests in North Sea Oil in the UK.
Reuters first with the news of the fall of the Berlin Wall. Reuters had also been first with the news of
it being built in 1961. Reuters maintained an office in East Berlin for 30 years.
ILX Systems, a provider of market data systems for financial professional, founded by E.F. Hutton &
Co. executives, and funded by the International Thomson Organisation.
Thomson acquires legal publishing businesses in the UK (Sweet & Maxwell), Canada (Carswell) and
Australia (The Law Book Company).
Reuters launches Equities 2000 quotations service on Integrated Data Network (IDN) - a global
“highway for data.”
Thomson acquires Compu-Mark, a worldwide market leader in trademark research.