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Fascism and nationalism

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Fascism and nationalism

  1. 1. During the 1920s and 1930s many regimes were totalitarian.  The most well-known totalitarian regimes were Italian Fascism, German Nazism, and Soviet Stalinism, whose characteristics were quite similar:
  2. 2. o Authoritarian systems.The State shall be controlled by populist and charismatic leaders, such as Mussolini, Hitler or Stalin.  There is not any political pluralism or civil rights.The only official political party eliminates opposition through violence and repression by paramilitary forces or political police.
  3. 3. o Economic and social control. Everything is controlled by the State, which will be anti-capitalist and anti- communist in Germany and Italy.  Public-work programmes were used in order to reduce unemployment.  Propaganda is essential to make the nationals believe in the political system.  Repressive measures were implemented to persecute all those who opposed the regime.
  4. 4. o Ideological inequality and fanaticism. Some members of the society are believed to be superior due to religious or racial reasons.  Symbols, uniforms, slogans, and songs are used to unite all the supporters of the regime. o Hyper-nationalism and militarism.The nation is essential above all and that explains why it has the right to military expansion, which can just be got through weapons and wars.  These countries needed to expand in order to access raw materials.
  5. 5. Fascism was established in Italy between 1922 and 1943.  The Italian fascist leader was Benito Mussolini (1870-1945):
  6. 6. 1. He joined the Italian Socialist Party in 1902 and led its newspaper, Avanti. None the less, he was suspended in 1914 when he wanted to enter WWI.  
  7. 7.  2. He founded a new political party in 1921, the Fascist National Party as well as a new newspaper: Il Popolo di Italia, where he published his political theories.
  8. 8. Italy suffered a major political crisis after WWI since they did not get as much as they expected (IRREDENTISM). Besides there was a social and economic crisis. The Fascists took advantage of this situation and controlled the rural areas. Step by step merchants and Catholics began to support Fascism. On 27 and 28 October 1922 Mussolini marched on Rome with his 30,000 Blackshirts in order to seize the power. As a result, the king Victor Emmanuel III gave Mussolini the government on 30 October 1922. The Grand Council of Fascism was created as a new government in Italy. The King and the Parliament were respected, although Mussolini was appointed as Duce and Dictator on 2 January 1925.
  9. 9.  Fascist economy: o Mussolini promoted a capitalist economic model. o Despite criticising industry, he promoted the heavy industrial sector. o He sought self-sufficiency and imports were limited. o Public works were developed under this regime. o Fascist trade unions were created to represent the workers and the others were banned
  10. 10.  Fascist society: o Fascism counted on the Catholic support. Hence Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty in 1929 with the Pope Pius XI:  Italy acknowledged the independence of the Vatican as a sovereign state.  Catholicism was the Italian official religion.  Only religious marriages would be allowed. o Mussolini became more racist with Jews after his approaching to Hitler. o Everything was completely controlled by Mussolini and the Fascist National Party, who imposed censorship and propaganda.
  11. 11.  International policy: Mussolini believed in Imperialism. Hence he meant to create an Italian empire:  The rule over Libya was consolidated.  Mussolini conquered and annexed Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1936.  Albania and Somalia were occupied in 1939.
  12. 12. Mussolini had very strong ties with Romania, Austria, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Due to international conflicts with France and Great Britain, Mussolini got closer to Hitler’s Germany:   The Rome-Berlin Axis was created on 1 November 1936.   The Pact of Steel was signed between Hitler and Mussolini on 22 May 1939. Japan also joined this pact to fight against communism (Anti-Comintern Pact).
  13. 13.  National Socialism or Nazism was the German totalitarian regime between 1933 and 1945.  The origins of this political ideology can be found in the creation of the German Socialist Workers’ Party by Anton Drexler in 1918, which meant to fight against Marxism.  Adolf Hitler joined that political party in 1919 and got its presidency in 1921, when he changed its name into National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP), which he identified with a new symbol: the swastika.
  14. 14.  His programme was hyper-nationalist (Pan-German), where Germans should get their Lebensraum (Life-room). It was also racist (Anti-Semite), where Aryans were superior.  He promised the suppression of the Treaty of Versailles.  He also created several paramilitary forces for the Nazi Party:  SA (Sturmabteilung), which were the Assault Division, subsequently led by Ernst Röhm.  SS (Schutzstaffel), which were the Protection Corps or personal guard.
  15. 15.  Hitler met other leaders such as Luddendorf, Röhm, Göring, and Rudolf Hess, who took part in an attempted coup d’état they staged in Munich in 1923.  Hitler was arrested and imprisoned in Landsberg:  While he was in prison he wrote his political manifesto: Mein Kampf (My Struggle).
  16. 16.  The Nazi Party had its first representatives in the German Parliament in 1930 and it won the elections in 1932 with a massive popular support:  On 30 January 1933 Hitler is appointed Chancellor by the President Hindenburg.  Once Hitler got the government he eliminated the rest of the political parties.  The Reichstag (German Parliament) was burnt by the Nazis in February 1933, although they blamed Anarchists and Socialists for that fire in order to persecute them.
  17. 17.  Once Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, Hitler was appointed as new German president, and was self-called Führer: o On 30 August 1934 Hitler proclaimed in Nuremberg the birth of the 3rd Reich, the so-called Thousand-Year Reich. o He created the Gestapo (contraction of GEheime STAatsPOlizei) as a secret political police. o He developed a programme to reindustrialise and to rearm Germany. o The autonomy of the German Länder (autonomous states) was abolished.
  18. 18.  Hitler made a policy in order to eliminate all those possible enemies from his point of view: o Dissolution of the SA on the Night of the Long Knives (30 June 1934), when all its leaders were captured and executed. o Persecution of the Jews once the Nuremberg Acts were passed (1935).
  19. 19.  On 9 November 1938, the so-called Night of Broken Glass (Krystallnacht), Jews were massacred across Germany.  Concentration camps were created in order to confine and exterminate Jews.
  20. 20.  Fascist and Nazi expansionist policy  Nationalism  Japan became an ally  USA didn’t want to get involved  GB and France were busied with their internal problems
  21. 21.  Rome-Berlin Axis  Anti-Comitern Pact  Pact of Steel  France, GB and Poland Treaty  German-Soviet Pact  New alliance between France, GB and Poland
  22. 22.  Blitzkrieg strategy  Invasions:  Poland (USSR)  Denmark and Norway (Germany)  Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France (Germany)  Battle of Britain  Battle of the Athlantic
  23. 23.  50 million of people died  Widespread destruction  Production fell down, that resulted in higher inflation  The neutral countries experienced a economic growth  Moral impacts caused by the horrors of the war  Two new powers apperared: USA and USSR
  24. 24.  Main allied nations: Britain, USA and URSS  Teheran conferenceTeheran conference: to end the war quickly  Yalta conferenceYalta conference: to eradicate the Nazi regime, and divide up Germany, Austria, Berlin and Vienna  Postdam ConferencePostdam Conference: Germany’s punishment  Two areas of influence: East and West  Paris ConferenceParis Conference: different map of Europe
  25. 25.  It replaced the League of Nations (1945)  46 states and these ideas:  To maintain international peace  To promote and defend human rights  To achieve cooperation  To promote self-determination