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What is AID?
Aid means assistance and it takes different
forms. Sometimes it is monetary assistance
which means that money is paid to the
government or an organisation working in the
Sometimes it is expertise, workers, equipment
Aid is the transfer of goods and
services from developed to developing
Foreign Aid, improving human wellbeing
Outline the concerns for human wellbeing in
What time of day was this photograph taken?
Poverty means lacking basic living
standards and conditions.
Not being able to progress and
have the same opportunities as
Poverty means a relatively short
life, poor health and poor access to
It can also mean a low income and
poor education level (literacy
Poverty often involves large
families and often war and conflict.
THE STATE OF THE WORLD IN 2016
Today across the world, 1.3 billion people out of 7.2 billion live on
less than $1 a day.
3 billion live on under $2 a day
1.3 billion have no access to clean drinking water
2.5 billion have no access to SANITATION.
2 billion have no access to electricity
Every day, around 25,000 children die from poverty related issues
150 million children without the chance to go to school.
1 billion people are illiterate.
What is the HDI?
The Human Development Index recognises
that a country’s economy alone is not enough
to measure its wellbeing – we have to look at
its people and their capabilities.
It looks at health, knowledge and standard of
The HDI is a summary of average
achievement in key dimensions of
human development – a long and
happy life, being knowledgeable and
having a decent standard of living.
Access the 2015 HDI report here
WHY DOES POVERTY EXIST AND WHY ARE
PEOPLE STUCK IN POVERTY?
What if I was born into poverty?
What are they?
World leaders met in New York in September
2015 and agreed on 17 goals for the world to
be met by 2030
Build on the success of the Millennium
Development Goals but integrating economic
growth with protecting the planet
They are not legally binding
The Sustainable Development Goals
are an intergovernmental set of
aspiration goals, overseen by the UN,
to improve economic prosperity and
sustainability globally by 2030
Sustainable Development Goals
In pairs, choose one goal each and
read the targets.
Write a summary of how that goal
will be achieved – use subheadings
and ask about any new terms
Report back to the class
If each nation
donated 0.7% of
to foreign aid the
Goals could be
met by 2030
What is Needed?
+ Types of AID
• Aid can be given or received in a variety of forms depending on the country
who is giving or receiving the aid, and whether it is a long term or short term
Bilateral Monetary or other assistance given from one country to another. E.g.
Australia giving aid to East Timor
Multi-lateral Provided by a number of countries, often through an international
organisation, or through a number of countries agreeing to help out.
E.g. Australia, NZ, USA and China giving aid to Japan after the
Tied Aid Aid provided where a country ensures that the money is spent on what
they are giving the aid for. Sometimes it is given with an agreement
that the receiving country will now trade goods and services with
Untied Aid Assistance given, free of conditions (very rare in the 21st century due
to corruption and poor governance).
+ What other
types of aid
Assistance in the food of fruit, vegetables, drinking water,
Assistance thorough the provision of experts. This could
include teachers, doctors, builders etc.
Monetary Aid Assistance in the form of funds
Urgent assistance provided after an incident such as an
earthquake, brushfire, Tsunami or flood
GROUP WORK TASK
1. Economic advantages
2. Cultural advantages
3. Geopolitical advantages
4. Economic disadvantages
5. Cultural disadvantages
6. Geopolitical disadvantages
EACH GROUP IS TO FORM 4 POINTS UNDER THEIR GIVEN TOPIC
FROM THE ARTICLE AND ARE TO SHARE THEIR INFORMATION WITH
THE CLASS IN 10 MINUTES.
Cultural, economic and geopolitical
1. Increase regional stability – prevent ‘failed states’
2. Better Regional security in the Asia-Pacific Region
3. Increase demand for Australian exports, employment
and investment opportunities.
4. Strengthen long-term international relations
5. Poverty reduction
6. Learn about new cultures and their beliefs (Educate
7. humanitarian needs
8. Creates jobs
9. Saves Lives
Cultural, economic and geopolitical
1. encourages a culture of dependence
2. Aid can discourage development and hinder growth of a nation.
3. There are dangers and risks associated with delivering aid.
4. foster resentment – paternalist, neo-colonialism – insensitive to
cultural values of recipient country
5. promote economic growth for the rich, but not address
environmental impacts and poverty-reduction. In other words
(widen the gap between rich and poor).
6. Poor countries may not afford to repay Australia. They can fall
further into debt.
1. Compare Australia's Aid Program with ONE
other developed world country from the
2. - USA, France, Norway, UK, Sweden
Read the article from World Vision
and summarise it
Answer this question:
Evaluate the effectiveness of foreign
aid in improving global inequalities
Does Foreign Aid Work?
Writing Evaluative Responses
• Evaluate= make a judgment based on criteria. Put a value on factors or points.
• Therefore, however, clearly evident, moreover, primary factor, major
influence, significant, in addition, overall, it is for these reasons, firstly,
secondly, thirdly, most important factor, significantly, highly influential, this has
been successful/unsuccessful, because, it is for these reasons, as a result, vital
• You must write explicitly, using geographic terminology.
• You need to strengthen your answer with evidence and write with confidence
In the year 2000 developed counties
agreed to give 0.7% of their Gross
National Income (GNI) to aid for
developing countries by 2015.
In 2015 the Australian government
gives 0.22%, which is $4 billion.
By 2016–17 the annual aid figure is
estimated to reach around $8–9
billion (0.5 per cent of Gross
Australian Foreign Aid
1 Indonesia $458 million
2 PNG $457 million
3 Solomon Islands $225 million
4 Afghanistan $123 million
5 Vietnam $120 million
6 Philippines $118 million
7 East Timor $103 million
8 Bangladesh $70 million
9 Vanuatu $66 million
10 Cambodia $64 million
foreign aid is
spent in the
THE COMPONENTS OF AUSTRALIA'S AID
• Security (strengthening
regional security by
enhancing the recipients
capacity to prevent
conflict, enhance stability
and manage relations with
• Sustainable resource
sustainable approaches to
the management of the
environment, including rural
development and the use of
scarce natural resources
• Human capital: supporting
stability and the legitimacy
of government through
improved basic services,
such as health, education
and water and sanitation
• Governance (promoting
and effective public
• Globalisation: (assisting
developing countries to
access and maximise the
benefits from trade and
Winners of the 2014 budget!
1. Medical research
Gets a $20 billion Medical Research Future Fund
2. Small to medium businesses
1.5 per cent company tax cut and no parental leave levy
3. Construction firms
With $11 billion in infrastructure spending
4. School chaplains
$245 million over five years
Spending to rise to 2 per cent of GDP within a decade
Paid Parental Leave Scheme to pay new mothers up to $50,000
$1 million for ballet students' boarding accommodation
Losers of the 2014 budget
1. The sick
$7 fee increase for GP visits and cuts to hospital funding
2. University students
Face higher, deregulated fees
3. Foreign aid
Reduction in foreign aid budget of $7.9 billion over five years
4. High income earners
Deficit tax rise of 2 percentage points for people earning more than
$180,000 a year
5. Public servants
16,500 job losses
6. Video gamers
Abolishing the Australian Interactive Games Fund, saving $10 million
Pension age rises to 70 from 2035 and concessions cut
Cuts to Family Tax Benefit Part B
9. Young unemployed
Under 30s face a six-month wait for a reduced dole
More expensive petrol with a fuel levy
11. Indigenous people
A $500 million cut to indigenous programs over five years
12. Local councils
Cuts of nearly $1 billion over four years
Case Study: World Bank
Who are they?
What is their goal/mission?
What type of aid do they provide?
Outline three strategies they use to provide
Outline three achievements they have made
Do a Google News search to find one criticism
of the World Bank and outline it briefly. Do you
think it is valid? Why/why not?
Case Study: Aid Recipient
Find a country that receives aid from Australia.
Find its GDP, GNI, HDP, infant mortality rate, fertility rate, HIV/AIDS
rate, history of natural disasters (note that you will need to define these
Create an overview of Australia’s aid to the nation in the last ten years,
outlining the types of aid, amount of aid and programs instituted
Evaluate the success of this aid program using improvements in the
criteria above to make your judgment. You may not be able to locate
information on all criteria, but do your best.