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Consumer behavior

  1. INTRODUCTION  In an environment of competitive market, the success of every industry largely depends on how precisely it can understand the target consumers.  Because, such an understanding is the sole means to translate the needs and wants of the prospective consumers into products or services.
  2. INTRODUCTION  Regarding textiles, understanding consumer is the nucleus of its production and marketing, as clothing is the manifestation of the behavioral aspects of the wearer in its totality.  To make it more clear, the decision regarding buying and using textiles is the reflection of the rational behavior of consumers.
  3. Who is consumer?  They are the end users of articles.  What is behavior?  It is a specific type of manner in which a person behaves or reacts.
  4. Meaning of Consumer Behavior  The term consumer behavior is defined as the behavior that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs  Consumer behavior focuses on how an Individual make decisions to spend their available resources( Time, money, effort) on Consumer related items .
  5. Consumer Behavior that includes-  What they buy?  Why they buy it?  When they buy it?  Where they buy it?  How often they buy it?  How they evaluate it after the purchase?  How they dispose it?
  6. CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS  Manufactures as well as marketers are found to understand and analyze the consumer decision-making process, as it depends the fate of a product or service in the current market environment.  'Cost' and 'utility' of the target product or service are the 'dyadic conditions' which effect every consumer decision-making process.Obviously, it varies from context to context and household to household.
  7. Consumer behavior Categories  Although the consumer decision-making process varies considerably, they can be included in one of the three categories:  The routine response behavior  The limited decision making  Extensive decision making
  8. The routine response behavior  is associated with frequently purchased articles and the consumers intake the decisions spontaneously. For example we buy casual dress without much thought .
  9. The limited decision making  is applicable in the context of occasional buying. And the consumers are interested in gathering the needful information so as to make the appropriate decision.
  10. Extensive decision making  is done when unfamiliar and infrequently bought products have become the target, the consumers adopt the policy of "think twice before you leap" and hence very keen in information - search and processing in order to avoid the post purchase dissonance.
  11.  INTERNAL INFLUENCES  Personal Factors  Psychological Factors
  12. Personal Factors It includes Age Income Occupation Life style Personality
  13. Psychological Factors
  14. Motivation  Motivation is what will drive consumers to develop a purchasing behavior. It is the expression of a need which became pressing enough to lead the consumer to want to satisfy it.  Motivation is directly related to the need.  To increase sales and encourage consumers to purchase, brands force a need in the consumer’s mind so that he develops a purchase motivation.
  15. Beliefs and attitudes  A belief is a opinion that an individual has on something.Through the experience he acquires, his learning and his external influences (family, friends, etc..), he will develop beliefs that will influence his buying behavior.  While an attitude is settled way of thinking or feeling about something.Attitudes allow the individual to develop a logical behavior against a objects or ideas.  Beliefs as well as attitudes are generally well- anchored in the individual’s mind and are difficult to change. For many people, their beliefs and attitudes are part of their personality and of who they are.
  16. Perception  Perception is the process through which an individual selects and organizes the information he receives in order to do something that makes sense.  Depending to his experiences, beliefs and personal characteristics, an individual will have a different perception from another.
  17. Learning  Consumer learning is an ongoing process and every consumer happens to learn something in his everyday life.  Learned consumers “smart consumers" possess distinctiveness in many aspects and are found to be efficient at the market place, because, he/she has been gathering knowledge about product, brand, media message, price and economic aspects.
  18. Psychological Factors
  19.  EXTERNAL INFLUENCES  Social Factors  Cultural Factors
  20. Social Factors:
  21. Social Factors:  Reference groups are defined as those that provide to the individual some points of comparison more or less direct about his behavior, lifestyle, desires or consumer habits.  The individual can also be influenced by a group to which he doesn’t belong yet but wishes to be part of.This is called an aspiration group.
  22. Social Factors:  The family is maybe the most influencing factor for an individual. It forms an environment of socialization in which an individual will evolve, shape his personality, acquire values.  The social role and status extremely influences the consumer behavior and his purchasing decisions. Especially for all the “visible” products from other people.
  23. Cultural Factors:
  24. Cultural Factors:  Culture  Throughout his existence, an individual will be influenced by his family, his friends, his cultural environment or society that will “teach” him values, preferences as well as common behaviors to their own culture.  Subcultures are the nationalities, religions, ethnic groups, age groups, gender of the individual, etc..  People from different social classes tend to have different desires and consumption patterns as they have difference in their purchasing power.
  25. Conclusion  Viewing from this perspective, any or textile industry has to focus on four thrust areas of the behavioral aspects of the consumers, which are 1. what the consumers like to buy (product), 2. From where they like to buy (source of buying) 3. How they keep themselves informed about products (media exposure) and 4. How they adapt with their environment in the decision- making process (socio - economic factors).
  26. Conclusion  In a nutshell, a comprehensive analysis of the behavioral aspects of the consumers is the fulcrum, which enables the textile or any other industry to march ahead.
  27. References  Schiffman, G.L and Kanuk, L.L. (2002). Consumer behavior, Preson Education, pp.  Philip Kotler, Hermawan Kartajaya, Iwan Setiawan. (2010) Marketing 3.0: From Products to Customers to the Human Spirit. JohnWiley & Sons, Inc.Hoboken, New Jersey.  Frank Kardes, Maria Cronley,Thomas Cline. (2008). Consumer Behavior, Cengage learning, Stamford, USA.  William M. Pride, O.C. Ferrell. (1989). Marketing: Basic Concepts and Decisions. Houghton Mifflin.  Henry Assael. (2004). Consumer Behavior: A Strategic Approach.Houghton Mifflin.  Marieke de Mooij. (2011). Consumer Behavior and Culture: Consequences for Global Marketing and Advertising. Sage publications, India, Pvt, Ltd.  John A. Howard. (2010). Consumer behavior: application of theory. McGraw-Hill.
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