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  2. What is Glass? ► Glass is a manufactured material formed when a mixture of sand, soda, and lime is heated to a high temperature and assumes a molten, or liquid, state. Natural Resources Silica sand 72% Soda Ash 17% Lime 5%
  3. Silica Sand ► Three of most common rock forming minerals on earth ► Chemically named: quartz sand / rock crystal ► Properties: ▪ Extremely heat durable ▪ Chemical stack resistance
  4. Soda Ash ► Anhydrous sodium carbonate ► Texture: soft ► Color: grayish & white ► Appearance: lump / powder in nature
  5. Lime ► Include hydrated lime & quicklime ► Only quicklime can use to make glass
  6. Today’s Glass Manufacturing Process: 1. Silica sand, limestone, soda ash and cullet (recycled glass or broken glass) are keep dry and cool in a batcher house in silos or compartments 2. Mixing and weighing into proper proportion 3. Send to furnaces in hoppers ▪ operated by natural gas ▪ heat the mixture at 1300-1600 degrees Celsius into soften or molten state Fig.12
  7. 4. Molding --- molten glass flows to forming machine to mold into desire shapes 5. Annealing --- reheating the glass in an oven ▪ to ensure even cooling of glass for strengthening of the products 6. Cooling process --- Cool for 30 min to an hour for safe to handle. 7. Glass products are then decorated, inspected again and finally packaged and shipped to our customers. glass furnace cooling systems
  8. Examples of Today’s Glass Products: ∙ Containers (jars and bottles) ∙ Flat glass (windows, vehicle glazing, mirrors, etc.) ∙ Lighting glass (fluorescent tubes, light bulbs, etc.) ∙ Tableware (drinking glasses, bowls, lead crystal, etc.) ∙ Laboratory equipments (test tubes, cylinders, measuring flasks, etc.) ∙ TV tubes and screens ∙ Decorative glass ∙ Fiberglass ∙ Optical glass ∙ Vacuum flasks
  9. Popular glass manufacturing companies in India: Asahi India Glass Limited: manufactures automotive and architectural glass for domestic and international markets; has manufacturing plants in Roorkee, Rewari, Chennai, Taloja, and Gujarat Saint-Gobain India Pvt Ltd: manufactures flat glass, processed glass, and mirrors for various applications, such as buildings, automobiles, solar energy, and security; has manufacturing plants in Sriperumbudur, Chennai, Bhiwadi, and Jhagadia Borosil Glass Works Ltd: manufactures laboratory glassware, consumer glassware, and scientific instruments for domestic and international markets; has manufacturing plants in Mumbai and Bharuch
  10. Factors affecting industry location: Availability of raw materials: such as sand, soda ash, limestone, and other additives Proximity to transportation: such as ports, railroads, and highways, for importing raw materials and exporting finished products Availability of energy sources: such as electricity, coal, and natural gas, for powering the manufacturing process Access to skilled labor: including engineers, technicians, and factory workers Infrastructure and government support, such as tax incentives, subsidies, and permits, for setting up and operating manufacturing facilities
  11. Best location in Rajasthan for glass manufacturing Bhiwadi: Bhiwadi is a growing industrial hub located on the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC), which provides good connectivity to major cities and ports. It has a good supply of raw materials such as sand, soda ash, and limestone, and access to energy sources such as electricity and natural gas. Jodhpur: Jodhpur is located in western Rajasthan and has a good supply of silica sand, which is a key raw material for glass manufacturing. It also has good connectivity to major cities and ports and a well- developed transportation infrastructure. Jaipur: Jaipur is the capital city of Rajasthan and has good connectivity to major cities and ports. It has a well-developed infrastructure and access to skilled labor. Additionally, the state government has been promoting the development of the manufacturing sector in the region, which could provide additional support for glass manufacturers.
  12. Schemes for glass manufacturing in India offered by the Governments: Make in India: This initiative aims to promote manufacturing in India and attract foreign investment in various sectors, including glass manufacturing. National Solar Mission: This scheme promotes the use of solar energy and provides incentives for the manufacture of solar equipment, including glass for solar panels. Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana: This scheme provides funding and loans for small and medium enterprises, including glass manufacturing units, to start or expand their businesses.
  13. Government bodies responsible for implementing some of the schemes mentioned earlier: Make in India - Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India. National Solar Mission - Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India. Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana - Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency (MUDRA), Government of India. Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) - Ministry of Textiles, Government of India. Rajasthan Investment Promotion Scheme - Rajasthan State Industrial Development and Investment Corporation (RIICO), Government of Rajasthan.
  14. Some of the best locations in Rajasthan for raw material are: Jaisalmer district: This district is known for its high-quality silica sand reserves, which are suitable for use in glass manufacturing. Jodhpur district: This district has large reserves of limestone, which is used as a flux in glass manufacturing. Bhilwara district: This district has reserves of soda ash and limestone, which are used as a flux in glass manufacturing. Ajmer district: This district has reserves of silica sand and limestone, which are used in glass manufacturing. Udaipur district: This district has reserves of silica sand and soda ash, which are used in glass manufacturing.
  15. Largest Glass Manufacturers As of 2020, the global glass manufacturing industry has a market size of $120.3 billion. At least 20 million tons of glass is produced each year. The global glass manufacturing industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 3.7% through 2028. 1 SAINT GOBAIN 2 AGC 3 CORNING INC 4 PPG 5 NIPPON SHEET GLASS CO.