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Foam dyeing technology in textiles uses less water and less energy, with better migration of the dye to the fabric.

Publicado en: Ingeniería


  1. 1. FOAM DYEING TECHNOLOGY Course Title: Advanced Textile Finishing & Coating Course Code: ACF-403 Group Assignment : Advanced Textile Finishing & Coating Welcome to our presentation
  2. 2. Name & ID No: MD.GOLAM SARWAR 120103019 Sumaiya Hoque Suma 120303043 Sifath Abdan Khan Chowdhury 120303003
  3. 3. The foam dyeing, the main dyeing elements is foam. For that’s this dyeing is called foam dyeing. A fabric is padded with a foam formed from an aqueous solution of a dyestuff, a foaming agent and a carrier for the dyestuff and the padded fabric is maintained at elevated temperatures to fix the dye. The advantages of the process include improved dye pre fixation, improved migration of the dye into the fiber, higher color yields in the fabric even after relatively short dyeing times and improved dimensional stability of the dyed fabrics. Foam is a dispersion of a gas in a liquid. Here the liquid is generally water and the gas is generally air but it may also be an inert gas. This is familiar as fort on beer shaving foam etc. Foam Dyeing FOAM DYEING
  4. 4. Broadly there are two types of foam namely • Dispersion foam • Condensation foam TYPES OF FOAM:
  5. 5. 1. White fabric - cotton, rayon, silk or other natural fiber to dye on 2. Dharma Fiber Reactive MX dyes 3. Soda Ash Fixer 4. Synthrapol 5. Squeeze bottles to hold your dyes 6. Foam shaving cream, preferably containing aloe 7. Flat, shallow, plastic or metal pan 8. Plastic mixing bowls 9. Wire whisk 10.Tape MATERIALS NEED FOR FOAM DYEING:
  6. 6. 1. It should generate foam readily. 2. It should offer a good wetting capability. 3. It should exert fast an uniform wetting action. 4. It should show little or no effect on color fastness. 5. It should be compatible with other products of the finishing mix. 6. It should be least effect ed by water hardness. 7. It should not cause yellowing of white materials. 8. It should be easily stabilized. 9. It should be capable of producing various bubble sizes to meet specific requirements. REQUIREMENTS OF FOAMING AGENTS:
  7. 7. 1. Pre-wash the fabric in Synthrapol. This removes any oils or dirt that might be on the fabric and gives you better dye results. 2. Dissolve one cup soda ash in one gallon of hot water. Soak the fabric in the soda ash solution for 5-10 minutes, wring lightly and hang dry. 3. Dissolve your dye powders (2 tsps. for colors without an *, 4 tsps. for colors with one *, 8 tsps. for colors with two *) in a small amount of warm water, stirring into a smooth paste. Stir in 1/2 cup lukewarm water. For reds and colors containing red, filter the dye solution through a coffee filter or piece of silk to remove difficult to dissolve particles. Add 1/2 cup shaving cream to the filtered dye solution, and then pour this mixture into the squeeze bottle. 4. Dilute about half a can of shaving cream with a cup of water in a large mixing bowl. Whisk the mixture until well blended and thick and creamy. Pour mixture into the tray until about an inch deep. FOAM DYEING PROCEDURE:
  8. 8. 5. Squirt the dye/shaving cream mixture over the shaving cream/water mixture in the tray in any pattern you wish. Use a comb, chopsticks, or any tool to swirl and spread the dye into any pattern desired. 6. Place a piece of the prepared fabric on the surface of the shaving cream and dye pattern. Remove any air bubbles by pushing down gently with a tool or a gloved hand. 7. Allow the fabric to sit on the surface of the dye/shaving cream for 5 minutes, and then remove fabric by lifting carefully. Place on a flat surface shaving cream side up and allow to sit for 2 to 24 hours to develop the dye. The piece needs to remain moist for the activation to take place. 8. Rinse fabric in cool running water to remove the soda ash, and then increase temperature to hot. Continue to rinse until water is almost clear, then wash in hot water and Synthrapol to remove any excess dye. Dry, press and voila! FOAM DYEING PROCEDURE:
  9. 9. (a) horizontal padder; (b) doctor coating, roller coatingand flow coating; (c) pressure or vacuum application; (d) transfer (double-sided)  Kiss-coating system  Morrison reverse roller  Knife-over-roller coating system  MonfortsVacu-foam system The Stork RSF (Rotary Screen Foam)system is illustrated in figure. The foamfrom thefoam generator is supplied to achamber (A), which is formed by twostainless steel blades. Theupper blade (B)has a tip of synthetic material and is pressed against the rotary screen (C) by air bellows (D). The lower blade (E) is pressed against the rotary screen by acombination ofmechanical pressure andhydrostatic foam pressure Methods of foam application:
  10. 10. Foam vs. Emulsion: Foam Emulsion 1) It is the dispersion of a gas in a liquid 2) Unstable 3) Foaming agent used. 1) It is a mixture of two immixable liquid 2) Comparatively more stable than foam. 3) Emulsifier used. #Emulsifier is a special chemical used to mix oil & water. #Optical Brightening agent is used for white dyeing.
  11. 11. Sancowad Foamer NT (Clariant), Nekanil LN (BASF). 1. Generate foam readily 2. Wide range of wetting technology 3. Fast & uniform wetting action 4. Little or no effect on color fastness 5. Compatible with other products 6. Least affected by water hardness 7. Least affected by temperature 8. Do not cause yellowing of white 9. Tend itself to be easily stabilized 10. Capable to comply with specific requirement. Foam is a medium only like water in regular wet processing technology. Foam only replace water, other processing materials will be there for processing. FOAMING AGENT:
  12. 12. Low material, water for low m:l ratio Low Waste Eco-friendly Energy Saving ADVANTAGE:
  13. 13. It can be classified in following categories:  Dispersion foam: It is produced by the introduction & mixing of gas from an external source into a liquid phase. E.g. Dispersion Tank in textile [fig]. It is used in textile processing.  Condensation foam: It is formed from the generation of a gas within the liquid, either by chemical reaction or by physical change. E.g. [fig] CLASSIFICATION:
  14. 14. • Inter lamellar liquid drains out of spherical foam cells. • The lamellae grow thinner, exchange of gas or breakage of lamellae, small bubbles aggregates to foam bugger bubbles until finally the foam collapse. #Salt brings dye on surface of fabric #Soda fixes dye. #Linear Process/Application: Main chemicals like NaOH, NaCl, Dye #Progressive Process/Application: Auxiliary chemicals COLLAPSE OF FOAM:
  15. 15. Continuous foam application technique flow chart is as follows: FOAM GENERATION:
  16. 16. FOAM EVALUATION CRITERIA: • Blow-Ratio: The blow ration expresses the volumetric ration of liquid to foam. • Range of application: 1 : 8 – 1 : 15 • Bubble Size: Range: 0.1 – 0.3 mm dia • Homogeneity: Constant sizes. • Ionic Nature: 1 ) Anionic Surfactants which has more foaming power, not very sensitive to temp change, used for cotton & polyester. 2 ) Non-ionic: Foaming power less than anionic. Foaming power reduced by temperature and addition of electrolytes. 3) Cationic: Unused. • Drop Escape Time: This is the time that elapses before the first drop of liquid emerges from the foam. Range: 45 – 90 cc. Uneven application, possibility of less…………… • Half Life period: It is the time taken for one half of the liquid in a definite volume to drain. Range: 4 -60 min
  17. 17. FOAM APPLICATION SYSTEM: There are several types of foam application system. Such as- HORIZONTAL PADDING MANGLE: APPLICATION WITH A COATING BLADE: Application with Coating Blade and collapse with suction nozzle: Foam application by pressure Nozzle: Application with rotary screen printing: Foam Application with indirect doctor blade:
  18. 18. HORIZONTAL PADDING MANGLE: Advantage Disadvantage 1) Better wetting power 2) Better Foam Decay 3) Lower Investment cost 1) Only suitable for woven fabric 2) Tailing or ending effect occurs.
  19. 19. Here, foam collapse with squeeze roller. This process is called “VALCHEM” process. Advantage Disadvantage 1) Better wetting power 2) Better foam decay 1) One sided foam application 2) More investment cost APPLICATION WITH A COATING BLADE:
  20. 20. In this case, foam is applied using coating blade while they are collapsed using a suction nozzle action on the back of substrate. This is developed by United Ranchants & Ram Factures Advantage Disadvantage 1) Better wetting power 2) Better foam decay 3) More even application. 1) Requires suction pressure 2) More energy consuming and costlier 3) Suitable only for woven and knit fabric Application with Coating Blade and collapse with suction nozzle:
  21. 21. This process is developed by Gaston county & union carbide. It is called FFT process. Advantage Disadvantage 1) Use of foaming agent is low 2) Popular for application with fluorescent bright agent. 3) Lighter foam density 4) Low cost 1) More energy required due to low density Foam application by pressure Nozzle:
  22. 22. This process is developed by “MITTER”. They are suitable for carpets. Advantage Disadvantage 1) Better collapse 2) Better design is possible 1) Require more energy. 2) More costlier Application with rotary screen printing:
  23. 23. In this case, two sided foam application is done by using transfer roller and dosage shots. This is developed by “KUESTER”. It is called Janus minifoam applicator. Advantages Disadvantages 1) Doctor blade can control foam 2) Two sided application of foam. 1) More costlier 2) Foam collapse is not good. 3) Suitable for delicate fabric. Two Sided foam application with transfer roller:
  24. 24. Here, foam application is done by indirectdoctor blade dosage and foam collapse is controlled by vacuum cylinder suction. It is developed by “MONFORTS”. Advantage Disadvantage 1) Better collapse 2) Better foam control 3) Wet on Wet: It helps multiple dosing of chemical; however more cost and fabric damage is possible due to pressure. 1) One sided foam application 2) More power consumption 3) More costly. Foam Application with indirect doctor blade:
  25. 25. Advantage & Disadvantage of foam finish/technology: Advantages Disadvantages 1) Save water 2) Save chemicals (0 – 20% minimum) 3) Save cost 4) Reduce water pollution 5) Save energy 6) Faster production 7) Printing do not need thickener 8) Wet on wet 9) Two sided application is possible. 1) Investment cost is more. 2) Skilled man power is required 3) Application limited, only for cotton and polyester 4) More attention required.
  26. 26. …for patients hearing.
  27. 27. References: • www.slideshare • •