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APA Style is important because this is how you will write most of your papers in college and also the “Real World”. APA style can be very tedious if you don’t use the correct resources. There are many resources you can use to make sure that you are using the APA format correctly. One of those resources is listed on the PowerPoint slide above. I have learned that using the APA style in research papers is very important. It can be the difference in a couple of points off your grade or a tremendous amount. Make sure that you cite everything correctly because if not , you can be held for plagiarism. WE don’t want that!!!.. Make sure you double check everything and if you are in a group project , make sure that you proofread everything and make sure that everything is in top shape!.. Research can be fun if done correctly. I really enjoyed the project with my group this semester.!
Reliability vs. Validity is one of the things that was taught to us this semester in a very funny way. We were able to work in groups during class time to make presentations using Disney characters!.. This was so much fun because it allowed us to be creative. The assignment made me realize how important knowing the difference between validity and reliability was. You want to make sure that your results are both reliable and valid. When people look at your notes for your projects, they will want to see things that are credible. With this being said, make sure that your sources are credible.
Ethics are a very important thing in research. I have listed some ethical principles that I found above. Ethics are how you will conduct your research in your project. They are the difference between what is right or wrong, this is good to know because if you conduct research in a wrong way , you can be punished for that. The rule I like to remember with ethics is to “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” , which is the Golden Rule. Ethics are important because if you don’t have good ethics, its possible that people wont trust you. Having trust in research is very important because you need people to believe what you have found, as well as you will need participants for the research in many cases. If these people feel that you are not doing your research correctly or that you are treating them unfair , they possibly wont help you.
This is a big thing that my group members discussed during the semester. We wanted to do a focus group but found out that it would taken more time. Focus groups are harder because you have to make sure that your transcribe the interactions, make sure that you take good notes on the group ( or tape record them), and make sure that you are available at a given time ; as well as your participants. We decided to do a survey because of the time limit we had on the project. We ended up getting a majority of the teachers whom were sent the survey, to respond. We then took the results and discussed them as a group and the person assigned to the results wrote them down. Zoomerang.com was a really big help in this project for the surveys. Overall, the surveys were the best tool for our research project because of the time limit, availability of teachers, and number of teachers who responded .Picking the right tool is the most important, will it be focus group or survey for you?! Look at all the pro’s and con’s first, then decide.
Coding is very important because this is how people who are reading your research will know how everything is set up and done. Coding makes everything easier to understand. My group and I had a hard time with this portion, but it was an important thing in research. People need to know how to code because it helps you understand , as well as help you keep track of your information collected in your research. It helps researchers notice patterns as well. Make sure that you include what you codes mean in your appendixes, as well as include your coding in your research book that you turn in. Coding is hard at first to understand , but with the help of teachers, and peers; you will be fine!..
Top Five Things that Public Relations Students need to know about research
Top five things that Public Relations students need to know about research Created by: Sheila Cost
1.) APA STYLE <ul><li>General APA Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides. You should use 10-12 pt. Times New Roman font or a similar font. </li></ul><ul><li>Include a page header at the top of every page. To create a page header , insert page numbers flush right. Then type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Paper Sections </li></ul><ul><li>Your essay should include four major sections: the Title Page , Abstract , Main Body , and References . </li></ul><ul><li>Information was taken from: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ </li></ul>
2.) RELIABILITY VS. VALIDITY <ul><li>Reliability : To what extent to which results are consistent over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Validity : determines whether the research truly measures that which it was intended to measure or how truthful the research results are. </li></ul>
3.) ETHICS <ul><li>Ethics are norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some ethical principles considered when conduction research: </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Carefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for Intellectual Property </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for Colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Social Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Legality </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Care </li></ul><ul><li>and Human Subjects Protection </li></ul><ul><li>For more information on the Ethics in Research and Why is it Important , Please visit : http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis.cfm . The information listed above is also credited to this website. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Require larger time commitment from participants </li></ul><ul><li>Require advance planning to invite guests, reserve space, develop questions, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire information from a relatively small group of representative stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Use a trained facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Allow participants to build on each other’s ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Happens at a fixed time and in a set manner </li></ul><ul><li>Information taken from:http://www.maine.gov/education/aded/dev/strategic_plan/focusgr.rtf </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Require relatively short time commitment from participants </li></ul><ul><li>Require advance planning to develop questions, distribute surveys, and process answers </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire information from an entire group (depending on size) or larger sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not require a trained facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Participants do not have the ability to build on each other’s ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be administered in a variety of ways. </li></ul>4.) Focus Group vs. Surveys
5.)Coding Data <ul><li>Coding Data is a data reduction method. When you are doing qualitative research, codes are normally words or devices for identifying themes. A good codebook should include : </li></ul><ul><li>A detailed description of each code </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion and exclusion criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplars of real text for each them </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplars of the theme’s boundaries, if abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Information credited to http://www.qualres.org/HomeCodi-3828.html </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>Overall, Public Relations students need to know : </li></ul><ul><li>APA Style </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability vs. Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Group vs. Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>And Coding Data </li></ul><ul><li>I picked these things as my top five things that Public Relation students need to know about research because some of these things I felt my group members and I struggled with throughout this semester and I don’t want others to do the same. The other things that I picked were because those were the things that I felt were the most important things that I got out of the class. I really enjoyed this class! This class has prepared me for the projects that I will have to carry out in the future. As well as, help me be fully prepared for my last semester of my undergraduate career. If students read this PowerPoint , they will understand the basics of any research that they will encounter. </li></ul>