2. Renewable energy - any sustainable energy which
comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind,
tides, rain, geothermal energy.
Some aspects of Renewable energy
It exists perpetually and is abundant.
Ready to be harnessed, inexhaustible.
Clean alternative to fossil fuels.
3. About 16% of global final energy
consumption comes from
renewables, with 10% coming from
traditional biomass (used for
heating) and 3.4%
New renewables (small hydro,
modern biomass, wind, solar,
geothermal, and bio-fuels)
accounted for another 3%
consumption and are growing very
The electrical generation globally
is mainly from hydroelectricity and
the rest from new renewables.
Humans have been using wind
power for at least 5,500 years
to propel sailboats and sailing
Windmills have been used for
irrigation pumping and for
since the 7th
India, Iran and
12. Wind power is a renewable energy source used to generate electricity by
converting wind energy into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is then
converted into electricity by the use of an electrical generator located within each
individual wind machine.
Blowing wind spins the blades of a wind
turbine – this device is called a wind
turbine and not a windmill
A windmill grinds or mills grains or is
used to pump water
Worldwide there are now many
thousands of wind turbines operating,
with a total nameplate capacity of
World wind generation capacity more
than quadrupled between 2000 and 2006,
doubling about every three years.
Off –shore wind turbine
13. Electricity generation
The blades of a turbine are attached to a
hub that is mounted on a turning shaft.
The shaft goes through a gear
transmission box where the turning
speed is increased.
The transmission box is attached to a
high speed shaft which turns a generator
that makes electricity
In a wind farm(which is a group of wind
turbines in the same location used for
production of electric power), individual
turbines are interconnected with a
medium voltage (often 34.5 kV), power
collection system and communications
16. Solar energy is the
radiant light and heat from the sun.
It has been harnessed by humans
since ancient times using a range of
Solar energy technologies include use of
solar energy for
solar thermal electricity
We can change the sunlight
directly into electricity by using
solar cells also called as photovoltaic
17. How electricity is generated?
When sunlight strikes the solar cell
electrons are knocked out loose
from the molecule
They move towards the treated
An electron imbalance is created
between both the surfaces of the
When the two surfaces are joined
by a connector like a wire , a current
of electricity occurs between the
negative and positive sides.
This electricity produced s used for
various purposes household and
Use of many solar cells or setting a
solar plant provides the purpose.
20. Applications of solar technology :
Solar technologies are broadly
characterized as either passive
solar or active solar depending on
the way they capture, convert and
distribute solar energy.
Active solar techniques use
photovoltaic panels, pumps, and fans
to convert sunlight into useful
Passive solar techniques include
selecting materials with favorable
designing spaces that naturally
referencing the position of a
building to the Sun
22. Biomass (or Bio-fuels)
Biomass is all plant material, or
vegetation, either raw or processed,
wild or cultivated.
Bio-fuel is a type of fuel whose energy is
derived from biological carbon fixation.
Bio-fuels are derived
from biomass conversion, as well
as solid biomass, liquid fuels and
Uses - Industrial process heat and steam,
Electrical power generation,
Transportation fuels (ethanol and
biodiesel) and other products.
23. Socio-Economic Benefits
• Helps developing economies by promoting agrarian communities
• Increase in jobs
• Increase in trade balance (Indian perspective) due to lesser
dependence on foreign resources
A facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and
equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass.
Analogous to today's petroleum refineries
It is based on the “Sugar Platform” and the “Thermo chemical
28. Geothermal Energy
Hot Springs have been used for bathing at least since Paleolithic times
The oldest known spa is a stone pool on China’s Lisan mountain built in the Qin
dynasty in the 3rd century BC, at the same site where the Huaqing Chi palace was
Hot water springs form due to geothermal energy of the earth
29. Geothermal energy
it is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy
that determines the temperature of matter.
originates from the formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of
The Geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of
the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form
of heat from the core to the surface.
Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally
friendly, but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries.
Geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely
deployed in place of fossil fuels.
31. Generation of electricity using steam power plants
from geothermal energy
The steam rotates a turbine that activates a
generator, which produces electricity
There are three types of geothermal power
plants: dry steam, flash steam, and binary cycle.
Dry steam power plants draw from
underground resources of steam and is sent to
the turbines/generator unit to produce power
Flash steam power plants use geothermal
reservoirs of water with temperatures greater
than 360°F (182°C). This very hot water flows up
through wells in the ground under its own
Binary cycle power plants operate on water at
lower temperatures of about 225°-360°F (107°-
32. Steam-driven Electric Power Plant
1. Cooling tower
2. Cooling water pump or
Circulating water pump
3. Transmission line
4. Step-up transformer
5. Electric generator
6. Low pressure turbine
7a. Condensate pump
7b. Boiler Feed water pump
9. Intermediate pressure turbine
10. Steam governor or control
11. High pressure turbine
13. Feed heater
14. Re-heater section
15. Steam generating heat
16. Moisture separators