• This article endorses the shift from 20th Century education to the
21st Century education in teachers preparing students for the
technology age through the acquisition of 21st Century skills.
• Presented in the article is the marked differences in the way teaching
and learning were addressed in the 20th century as opposed to what
is being currently taught, how it is being delivered by teachers, and
how the students are responding.
5. A COMPARATIVE VIEW
20TH CENTURY EDUCATION 21ST CENTURY EDUCATION
Filling the vessel Kindling the fire
Information transfer Learning to learn
Time based Outcome based
Memorization of discrete facts What students know and can do
Textbook driven Research based
Work in isolation Collaboration
Passive learning Active learning
Teachers are the authority Teachers as facilitators
6. COMPARATIVE VIEW CONT’D
2OTH CENTURY EDUCATION 21ST CENTURY EDUCATION
Teacher says I taught it to them its up to What have the students learned and how can
Them to learn it They transfer it to real life situation
Teacher as judge World wide experience
School irrelevant and meaningless to Curriculum connected to students experience
7. 21ST CENTURY SKILLS
Society has moved from the industrial age to the information age.
1. PROBLEM SOLVING
2. CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION
5. INFORMATION AND DIGIAL LITERACY
6. ETHICS, ACTION AND ACCOUNTABILITY
8. PROBLEM SOLVING
• Problem solving is the ability to solve complex problems in real time.
• Educators need to foster the development of Problem Solving Skills
• Students should be encouraged to look at multiple perspectives of
9. CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION
• Creativity and innovation is the ability to cultivate exclusive and
valuable solutions. Creativity is an essential channel that motivates
students to see who they are and what they can do, and to realize
what they can accomplish.
• Creativity comes from doing worthwhile projects and significant tasks
that give students challenges to overcome in ingenious ways
• Collaboration is the ability to co-operate.
• Students of the digital age are social by nature
• They text, post, update, share and chat with each other
• Association and collaboration with others is vital to their learning.
• Communication is an extensive term that incorporates many levels of
interaction and conveying information to others.
• Students communicate using technology daily.
• Educators need to emphasize the need for effective communication
especially by choosing the correct media for communication.
12. INFORMATION AND DIGITAL LITERACY
• Information Literacy skills enable a person to identify, analyze and
evaluate information related to the topic they are learning.
• Students with a high level of information literacy are able to identify
articles, videos, and tools, and determine their application in context
of their learning.
• Digital Literacy skills allow for the effective use of digital tools for
communication and expression. Digital Literacies may include visual
literacy, media literacy, and information literacy.
13. ETHICS, ACTION, AND ACCOUNTABILITY
• Ethics, Action, and Accountability
• This includes financial viability, personal accountability, environmental
awareness, empathy, and tolerance.
• A well-rounded and responsible citizen is a helpful and caring
individual who is respectful of other cultures and belief systems, and
diligent about being at their best with interactions with others.
• Educators can promote ethical actions and accountability in the
classroom by utilizing local, national and international scenarios
where students can examine the roles of the people involved and
critically assess whether or not their actions were ethical.
Other ways of integrating 21st Century skills into the classroom include;
1. developing a curriculum designed specifically for the implementation of
2. adopting skills centred pedagogy,
3. incorporating 21st Century skills in extra curricula activities,
4. research project assignments and
5. students’ engagement in apprentice and internship programs.
These and other activities foster for teachers and students alike,
opportunities for acquisition of 21st Century skills in this global technological
20th Century Teaching 21st Century Teaching
• Information traditionally
accessed in classrooms
• Information obtained from the click
of a button
• Exposure to full 21st Century education was a major culture shock as
we were quickly forced to move away from the concept of the
teacher being the "sage on the stage" and the students being little
empty vessels waiting to be filled.
• The use of technology has heightened the innate disposition of our
students to learn through exploration and active guided engagement.
• The role of the teacher has evolved to one that facilitates a student-
centered approach to teaching and learning.
• As educators, our teaching must be dynamic and reflect changes in
• The dynamics of teaching and learning have and will continue to
evolve even beyond the 21st Century and we must be even more
prepared for these changes.
Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the Brain In Mind (2nd edition ed.). Virginia: Association for
supervision and curriculum Development.
Schleicher, A. (2010) The case for 21st-century learning. Retrieved from
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The Critical 21st Century Skills Every Student Needs and Why. (2015, January 9). Retrieved
September 21, 2015, from https://globaldigitalcitizen.org/critical-21st-century-skills-every-student-
21st Century Skills (2015, August 20). In S. Abbott (Ed.), The glossary of education reform. Retrieved
20th Century Education vs. 21st Century Education. [Video file] Retrieved from