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Gagne conditioning theory

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Learning theory

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Gagne conditioning theory

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Robert Gagne was an experimental psychologist who was concerned with learning and instruction.  His earlier work was in a behaviorist tradition, but later he was influenced by the information- processing view of learning and memory. He is well known for his synthesis of research on learning and the identification of internal and external conditions of learning.
  3. 3. Learning according to Gagne  Learning is cumulative. Human intellectual development is the building of increasing complex structures of human capabilities.  Learning is the mechanism by which an individual becomes a competently functioning member of society  Learning results in different kinds of human behaviors, i.e. different human capabilities, which are required both from the stimulation from the environment and the cognitive processing undertaken by the learners.
  4. 4. Underlying Assumptions derived from Gagné's ideas about learning and instruction  Because learning is complex and diverse, different learning outcomes (capabilities) requires different instructions, prerequisites and processing by the learners. In other words, the specific operations that constitute instructional events are different for each different type of learning outcome.  Events of learning operate on the learner in ways that constitute the conditions of learning. The internal states required in the learner to acquire the new skills are internal conditions of learning, and the environmental stimuli required to support the internal learning process are external conditions of learning. Learning hierarchies
  5. 5. Five domains of learning outcomes  Gagne stressed that different variables influence the learning of different types of tasks. He identified five domains of learning outcomes:  information  intellectual skills  cognitive strategies  motor skills  attitudes
  6. 6. Domain Definition Example Verbal Information Stating facts, names, labels, or describing organized bodies of knowledge Naming the three branches of government; describing the rules of a card game; explaining Freud's theories; listing causes of inflation Intellectual Skills Using discriminations, concepts, and rules to solve problems Distinguishing between different stimuli like recognizing that two musical notes are different, identifying things that belong in the same category like different types of virus; applying a rule to determine something like calculating the distance it will take a car to stop; solving a problem that is new for you such as determining how much paint it will take to paint the exterior of your house
  7. 7. Domain Definition Example Motor Skills Executing body movements in coordinated fashion Playing catch with a baseball; writing your name with a pen; assembling a swing set Attitude Choices we make to behave in certain ways Choosing to follow proper etiquette when having dinner with new acquaintances; showing regard for a sick co-worker by offering to help them get their work done; being open to new ideas by allowing someone to express his suggestion fro accomplishing a work task when it differs from your suggestion Cognitive Strategy Using ways to control one's thinking and learning processes Determining how to approach a new learning situation; deciding how to go about learning a long list of items; creating a way to remember the names of several people you just met
  8. 8. Domain Conditions Verbal Information 1. provide a meaningful context 2. provide opportunity for practice storing and retrieving information in memory 3. stress relationships among content to be learned 4. provide additional practice over time Intellectual Skills 1. recall of specific prerequisite intellectual skills Motor Skills 1. observation of a model performing skill in a correct manner 2. opportunity to practice performing the skill 3. receiving feedback on your performance that shows you what to change and how Attitude 1. observation of a model who shows the desired choice and is reinforced as a result 2. making the desired choice and receiving direct reinforcement as a result Cognitive Strategy 1. provide opportunities to work with novel problems 2. have students monitor their cognition 3. allow students to observe expert problem solvers at work Relevant conditions of Learning
  9. 9. Subcategories of Intellectual Skills  Intellectual skills are the domain of learning the Gagne placed the most emphasis on in his own work.  He thought that mastery of intellectual skills was fundamental to education and much more important than learning specific information.  There are several subcategories of intellectual skills organize from simple skills to more complex skills. The ability to master the more complex skills is a direct result of having already mastered the specific prerequisite lower-level or simpler skills.
  10. 10. Intellectual Skill Example Problem Solving Encountering a new situation in which you have to decide which rules to apply and in what combination and sequence to resolve a novel problem. Determining how to reduce your company's energy consumption by 15% next year. Rule Learning Applying a rule, a principle or formula to resolve a situation. Determining the impact of a 5% increase in mortgage rates on home ownership Defined Concepts Grouping objects based on a classifying rule. Identifying a country that freely elected its leaders by popular vote as a democracy; Classifying a period of time in which real wages and prices for goods and services rise as inflationary Concrete Concept Grouping objects based on physical characteristics. Sorting different tree leaves into groups based on their species; identifying different skin rashes according to the type of rash; Discriminations Telling that two or more stimuli are different. Distinguishing between two different sounds or recognizing that two fish are not the same.
  11. 11. Nine Events of Learning As part of his theory Gagne built upon the information processing model by considering what must happen externally to the learner to facilitate this internal processing of information that goes on during learning. That is, what can a teacher do to facilitate a student learning new content based on the information processing model of learning. He identified nine events of learning that should happen to optimally facilitate students internal processing of information. (These events were based on empirical observations of the instructional procedures and the information-processing model of learning and memory. ) These Events of Instruction are sequenced in this order because each event impacts the internal processing of information as we attend to input from our senses, move information into the sensory register, and then into short-
  12. 12. Event Meaning 1.Gain attention (reception) The first step is to gain students' attention and motivate him to engage with the content. 2. Inform objectives (expectancy ) Student needs to be clarified what he can expect. 3. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge (retrieval) Prior knowledge should be activated since it is important for learning new materials. 4. Present stimulus material (selective perception) Present the material to the students, possibly using various learning styles. 5. Provide learner guidance (semantic encoding) Guidance in terms of communication enables the teacher to direct the students in their learning or enable them easier information encoding through visual or other materials.
  13. 13. 6. Elicit performance (responding) Students need practice. Practice should immediately follow instructions and be well defined in terms of its nature, objectives and expected student responses. 7. Provide feedback (reinforcement ) Feedback is additional guidance offering the student immediate evaluation of his performance enabling him to realize his mistakes and misconceptions. 8. Assess performance (retrieval At the end of each course student's knowledge should be assessed in order to check if expected learning has occurred 9Enhance retention and transfer (generalization) The learning process does not end when the class does. The teacher should advise students how and in which context to apply and transfer the just gained knowledge in the world outside the classroom.
  14. 14.  Based on his research, Gagné in 1968 proposed the theory of cumulative learning, based on the premise that new learning most of all depends on combining previously acquired and recalled material and skills, but also on the ability of learning transfer.  In his own words, “There is a specifiable minimal prerequisite for each new learning task. Unless the learner can recall this prerequisite capability… he can not learn the new task” CUMULATIVE LEARNING