3
2
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A device used to image
gamma radiation emitting
radioisotopes (scintigraphy)
To view & analyze images of the
human body or distribution of
medically injected, inhaled or
ingested radionuclides
emitti...
 CALLIMATOR
 NAL (TI) CRYSTAL
 PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES (PMT)
 PRE- AMPLIFIER
 AMPLIFIER
 POSITION LOGIC CIRCUITS
 PUL...
CALLIMATOR
• Made of a large
number of small
holes drilled in a
plate of lead.
• Provide the right
direction.
• Scatter ra...
TYPES OF COLLIMATOR
PARALLEL - HOLE PIN- HOLE
COLLIMATOR
Image
Same Size
as
Object
Sensitivity
CONT.
CONVERGING DIVERGING
NAL (TI) CRYSTAL
 Converts received radiations into
light photons
PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES (PMT)
 Following the light
guide.
 photocathode converts
light photons into
electrons.
 electrons...
PRE- AMPLIFIER & AMPLIFIER
 Pre- amps attach above the
PMT.
 The amount of charge given by
PMT is very small. Even thoug...
POSITION LOGIC
CIRCUITS
 Position circuitary
receive the electrical
impulses from the tubes in
the summing matrix
circuit...
DATA ANALYSIS COMPUTER
 A processing computer is used to deal
with the incoming projection data and
processes it into a r...
GANTRY
 A gamma camera system
attached with gantry.
 All circuits and motors
related to movement
(longitudinal, rotation...
 Bone scan.
 Myocardial
Perfusion
 Lung scan.
 Kidney function.
 Thyroid uptake.
Is a radioactive pharmaceutical
agent that is used for
diagnostic or therapy in a
tracer quantity.
RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL
THERAPEUTIC
DIAGNOSING
THERAPEUTIC
 Designed to deliver therapeutic dose of
ionizing radiation to specific disease site,
such as cancerous tumor...
DIAGNOSING
Used to derive detailed
description of the morphology
and dynamic functioning of the
various internal organs of...
data acquisition
data processing
image display and manipulation
data storage and
system control
 Studies of the brain and central nervous
system.
 Cardiac imaging.
 Skeletal imaging.
 The respiratory system.
 Live...
MEDICAL IMAGING (EU 601)
MEDICAL IMAGING (EU 601)
MEDICAL IMAGING (EU 601)
MEDICAL IMAGING (EU 601)
MEDICAL IMAGING (EU 601)
MEDICAL IMAGING (EU 601)
MEDICAL IMAGING (EU 601)
MEDICAL IMAGING (EU 601)
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MEDICAL IMAGING (EU 601)

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MEDICAL IMAGING (EU 601)

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  4. 4. A device used to image gamma radiation emitting radioisotopes (scintigraphy)
  5. 5. To view & analyze images of the human body or distribution of medically injected, inhaled or ingested radionuclides emitting gamma rays.
  6. 6.  CALLIMATOR  NAL (TI) CRYSTAL  PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES (PMT)  PRE- AMPLIFIER  AMPLIFIER  POSITION LOGIC CIRCUITS  PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER  DATA ANALYSIS COMPUTER  DISPLAY (CATHODE RAY TUBE etc.)  GANTRY
  7. 7. CALLIMATOR • Made of a large number of small holes drilled in a plate of lead. • Provide the right direction. • Scatter radiation absorbed by septa.
  8. 8. TYPES OF COLLIMATOR PARALLEL - HOLE PIN- HOLE COLLIMATOR Image Same Size as Object Sensitivity
  9. 9. CONT. CONVERGING DIVERGING
  10. 10. NAL (TI) CRYSTAL  Converts received radiations into light photons
  11. 11. PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES (PMT)  Following the light guide.  photocathode converts light photons into electrons.  electrons amplified through many dynodes.  The final electrons cluster is collected at the anode  anode converts them into electrical signals.
  12. 12. PRE- AMPLIFIER & AMPLIFIER  Pre- amps attach above the PMT.  The amount of charge given by PMT is very small. Even though we have used a sophisticated photo detector like a PMT we still end up with quite a small electrical signal.  A very sensitive amplifier is therefore needed to amplify this signal. This type of amplifier is generally called a pre-amplifier.  After that use amplifier to amplify the signal as need.
  13. 13. POSITION LOGIC CIRCUITS  Position circuitary receive the electrical impulses from the tubes in the summing matrix circuit (SMC).  This allows the position circuits to determine where each scintillation event occurred in the detector crystal. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER  The amplitude of each electrical pulse from the amplifiers is measured in the electrical circuits of the pulse-height analyzer  Peak height analyzer and a computer convert the light into a useful anatomical image
  14. 14. DATA ANALYSIS COMPUTER  A processing computer is used to deal with the incoming projection data and processes it into a readable image of the 3D spatial distribution of activity within the patient. The computer may use various methods to reconstruct an image, such as filtered back projection or iterative reconstruction
  15. 15. GANTRY  A gamma camera system attached with gantry.  All circuits and motors related to movement (longitudinal, rotational, up & down)of gamma camera placed in gantry. gantry
  16. 16.  Bone scan.  Myocardial Perfusion  Lung scan.  Kidney function.  Thyroid uptake.
  17. 17. Is a radioactive pharmaceutical agent that is used for diagnostic or therapy in a tracer quantity.
  18. 18. RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL THERAPEUTIC DIAGNOSING
  19. 19. THERAPEUTIC  Designed to deliver therapeutic dose of ionizing radiation to specific disease site, such as cancerous tumors, with high specificity in the body.  Historically, used to treat Thyroid cancer, Graves’ disease, hyperthyroidism, and bone pain pallitation associated with skeletal metastasis.
  20. 20. DIAGNOSING Used to derive detailed description of the morphology and dynamic functioning of the various internal organs of the body.
  21. 21. data acquisition data processing image display and manipulation data storage and system control
  22. 22.  Studies of the brain and central nervous system.  Cardiac imaging.  Skeletal imaging.  The respiratory system.  Liver/spleen imaging.  The endocrine system

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