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Abc's of vision impairments and communication styles

  1. ABC’s of Vision Impairments and Communications Styles
  2. Vision Impairments • Cataracts • Retinal Detachment • Retinitus Pigmentosa • Usher Syndrome • Macular Degeneration • Glaucoma
  3. Normal View of Picture
  4. Cataracts
  5. Cataracts Clouding of the lens of the eye Caused by buildup of protein in the lens Types of cataracts include: Age-related - develop with age Congenital - found in babies born with an infection, injury or poor development before birth, or develop during childhood Secondary - develop as a result of other medical conditions such as diabetes or exposure to toxic substances, drugs, ultraviolet lights or radiation Traumatic - develop after injury to the eye
  6. Cataracts (con’t) Symptoms: -vision that is cloudy, blurry, foggy, or filmy -progressive nearsightedness in older people -changes in view of color -glare problems when driving at night -glare problems during the day -double vision -sudden changes in glasses prescription Cataracts are diagnosed through an eye exam Treatment for cataracts -eyeglasses to correct vision -surgery if glasses correction is not enough
  7. Normal View of Picture
  8. Retinal Detachment
  9. Retinal Detachment Very serious eye condition that occurs when the retina separates from the tissue around it Must be repaired immediately or can cause permanent vision loss Symptoms: -flashes of light -seeing “floaters” (small flecks or threads) -darkening of your peripheral vision Diagnosed through an eye exam
  10. Retinal Detachment (con’t) Treatments: -Laser or freezing - both will repair the tear if caught early enough -Pneumatic retinopexy - (used if tear is small and easy to close) a small gas bubble is injected into the eye and will rise pressing against retina closing the tear. Laser or freezing is then done to seal the tear. -Scleral buckle - involves surgically sewing a silicone band (buckle) around the sclera (white of the eye) to push the sclera toward the tear until the tear heals. This band can not be seen and is permanently attached. Laser or freezing might be done to seal the tear. -Vitrectomy - used for large tears and is requires surgery. The doctor removes the vitreous and replaces it with a saline solution.
  11. Normal View of Picture
  12. RP/Ushers Syndrome
  13. Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) group of genetic eye conditions leading to incurable blindness starts with night blindness and moves into tunnel vision (progression is different for everyone) can run in families and can be caused by a number of genetic defects
  14. RP (con’t) Symptoms: -decreased vision at night or in low light -loss of peripheral vision -loss of central vision Tests for diagnosis: -color vision -dilation of the pupils to look at the retina -fluorescein angiography (fluorescent dye injected into bloodstream which allows blood vessels in the back of the eye to be photographed) -pupil reflex response -visual field test -visual acuity
  15. RP (con’t) Treatment: -no effective treatment for this condition although wearing sunglasses to protect retina from ultraviolet light may help preserve vision -high doses of vitamin A may slow the disease but could cause damage to the liver -clinical trials are in place to test new treatments such as DHA (omega-3 fatty acid)
  16. Usher Syndrome • An inherited disease causing a hearing loss and degeneration of the retina • Earliest symptom is a loss of hearing usually at birth • Later a reduction of side vision leaving only center vision • Later developing into “tunnel vision” • Many people with Usher Syndrome also have severe balance problems.
  17. Usher Syndrome (three different types)
  18. RP/Ushers/Glaucoma
  19. Glaucoma disease in which the optic nerve is damaged associated with the increased pressure of fluid in the eye 2nd most common cause of blindness in the United States
  20. Glaucoma (con’t) Types of Glaucoma: Open-angle (chronic) - most common type with an increase of eye pressure that occurs over time pushing on the optic nerve Angle-closure (acute) - when the exit of the aqueous humor fluid is suddenly blocked causing quick, severe, and painful rise in the pressure of the eye (this is an eye emergency) Congenital - present in babies at birth and is caused by abnormal eye development Secondary - caused by drugs such as corticosteroids, eye diseases such as uveitis, systemic diseases or trauma
  21. Glaucoma (con’t) Symptoms: Open-angle - most people have no symptoms, once vision loss occurs the damage is already severe, there is a slow loss of peripheral vision, advanced glaucoma can lead to blindness Angle-closure - may come and go at first, quick and severe pain in one eye, decreased or cloudy vision, nausea and vomiting, halos around lights, red eye, eye feels swollen Congenital - noticed in babies a few months old, cloudiness of the front of the eye, eyes look enlarged, red eye, sensitivity to light, tearing
  22. Glaucoma (con’t) Tests for diagnosis: -complete eye exam including dilation -tonometry (pressure test of the eye) -gonioscopy (special lens to look at eye) -optic nerve imaging -examination of the retina in the back of the eye -slit lamp examination -visual acuity -visual field measurement
  23. Glaucoma (con’t) Treatment: -goal of treatment is to lower eye pressure so might be given eye drops or pills to lower pressure -iridotomy (laser therapy) -eye surgery
  24. Seeing the world with advanced tunnel vision.
  25. Normal View of Picture
  26. Early Stage Macular Degeneration with Center Vision
  27. Late Stage Macular Degeneration with Center Vision
  28. Macular Degeneration with Incomplete Scotoma
  29. Macular Degeneration with Ring Scotoma
  30. Macular Degeneration with Absolute Scotoma
  31. Floaters from Macular or Diabetes
  32. Macular Degeneration loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the macula) due to damage to the retina difficult to read or recognize faces due to the loss of central vision peripheral vision remains allowing for other daily activities to continue leading cause of legal blindness in people over 55 in the United States Two forms: Dry (atrophic) which is a result of the gradual breakdown of cells in the macula. Wet (exudative or neovascular) which is a result of newly created abnormal blood vessels growing under the center of the retina.
  33. Macular Degeneration (con’t) Symptoms: -blurred or decreased central vision -blind spots -straight lines look irregular or bent -objects appear different colors and shapes in each eye Tests for diagnosis: -Amsler grid - test to determine defects in center vision (if have macular degeneration lines on test might appear faded, broken, or distorted) -exam of the back of the eye -angiogram - dye injected into blood stream so that images of blood vessels can be taken -tomography - imaging test to see areas of the retina
  34. Macular Degeneration (con’t) Treatments: -no cure found for the dry form although studies have shown antioxidants may protect the retina from damage -laser treatment may help with the wet form of macular degeneration possibly stopping or lessening the vision loss in the early stages of the disease
  35. Methods of Communicating & Interpreting • At close range • At far range • Tactile – one or both hands • Tracking • Tadoma • Braille • Print on palm or back
  36. At Close Range
  37. At Far Range
  38. Tactile (one handed or two handed)
  39. Tactile
  40. Tracking
  41. Tadoma
  42. Tadoma
  43. Braille
  44. Print on Palm
  45. Print on Back
  46. The Interpreting Assignment • Mobility – What are the requirements of the Deaf-Blind person and how will it affect the interpreter? • Length of the assignment – Will you need a partner interpreter? • Familiarizing the Deaf-Blind person with the room and surroundings • Special needs – food, medication, restrooms, seating, etc.
  47. The Interpreting Assignment • Codes – restroom, coffee breaks, exercise breaks, meal breaks • Seating arrangements – Who faces the speaker? • Clothing – dark clothing with high necks may be most appropriate • Lighting – How much residual vision does the Deaf-Blind person have?
  48. The Interpreting Assignment • Participation – How should comments or questions be added to presentation? • Social Situations – Are you “off duty” at lunch time? • Personal Hygiene – body odors or bad breathe, perfume, etc
  49. Resources Braille Deaf-Blind Cataracts Glaucoma
  50. Resources (con’t) Images Macular Degeneration macular-degeneration-overview DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs Photos Retinal Detachment
  51. Resources (con’t) Retinitis Pigmentosa Usher Syndrome

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