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Beef Lecture

  1. Beef 101 From Pasture to Plate Courtesy of the Utah Beef Council
  3. Beef Carcass Division
  4. Farmer Brown froze in his tracks; the cows stared wide-eyed back at him. Somewhere, off in the distance, a dog barked.
  5. Beef Aging No Difference Cooking Loss No Difference Less Than 1% Yield Loss 4 to 19% Milder Flavor More Intense Beefy & Meaty Flavor Notes No Difference Juiciness No Difference No Difference Tenderness No Difference WET AGING FACTORS DRY AGING
  7. Estrogen Levels in Common Foods

Notas del editor

  1. Precautions during transportation minimize stress and injury to the animals. Cattle are carefully loaded and unloaded into trailers that are specially designed to avoid injury and strain. When cattle arrive at packing plants, they are moved inside in a quiet and orderly manner. There is little excess movement or unnecessary noise so cattle are not unduly stressed. Packing plant technicians then use a mechanical stunning device to quickly and effectively render animals unconscious
  2. The beef industry has made great strides in improving food safety matters. E. coli has been dramatically reduced in recent years (80% decrease in four years, 2005) due to several interventions at the packing plant. Some of these include: People (Performing Best Practices), Fundamental Sanitation, Hide-On Wash Cabinet, Pre-Evisceration Acid Rinses, Steam Vacuums, Carcass Washes, Thermal Cabinets (Steam or Hot Water), Post-Evisceration Acid Rinses, and Chilling and Cold Chain Management
  3. These are the main divisions (primals) of the beef carcass. There would be two of each of these primals.
  4. Very little aging is done “dry” anymore. It was a natural feature of refrigerated rail cars that carried beef throughout the nation. Most aging is done in cryovac sealed bags. Aging can only be done to large cuts (primals and subprimals) it should not be done to steaks and smaller roasts that are purchased at the grocery store.
  5. Dry aging is not preferred due to the considerable yield loss and for the space required to do dry aging.
  6. Cuts from the rib and loin are mostly support muscles, which makes them naturally tender. They are not overworked. They can be cooked more quickly and at higher heat than those cuts from the chuck and round. Cuts from the chuck and round are well-used muscles used for movement and are more tough and have more connective tissue. The moist, lower heat breaks down the connective tissue and tenderizes the muscle.
  7. Any bacteria on steaks or roasts would be on the surface of the beef. In ground beef you would end up incorporating any surface bacteria throughout the meat; this is why ground beef needs to be cooked to 160 degrees and steaks or roasts can be cooked to medium rare doneness
  8. Marinades may be cooked or uncooked. Cooked marinades add the most flavor and are recommended when marinating for more than 12 hours. Cooked marinades should be completely cooled before adding to beef. Turn beef occasionally during marinating so that all sides are equally exposed to the marinade. Beef must be marinated at least 6 hours for tenderizing effect to take place. Marinating longer than 24 hours causes the meat fibers on the surface to break down, resulting in a “mushy” texture. For flavor , marinate 15 minutes or as long as 2 hours. If you want to brush on marinade during grilling, reserve some marinade at the beginning. (Never use a marinade that has had raw beef in it to brush on cooked beef) Marinades that have a high sugar content, or contain other ingredients which might burn easily, should be brushed on during the last 20 minutes of grilling. Marinade may also be served as a sauce with the grilled meat. Again, reserve some from the beginning. Left over marinade (that has been used with raw beef) should be discarded. Never reuse a marinade! Do not salt meat before cooking. Meat will lose moisture and become dry.
  9. Always buy meat from the store last and get it home as soon as possible. Store in the coldest spot in the refrigerator. You may freeze beef in the container it comes in at the store, but not for longer than two weeks. If storing longer, wrap in freezer paper, freezer bags or aluminum foil and seal well. Beef slowly loses quality the longer it is in the freezer, but should still be safe if the freezer is cold enough. Freezer burn occurs because air has penetrated the seal and only affects quality, not safety.
  10. Beef producers have responded to customer’s requests for a leaner beef product.
  11. A growth promotant is typically a small pellet that is implanted under the skin on the back of the animal’s ear. The pellet releases tiny amounts of hormone and safely dissolves as the treatment is completed. The use of growth promotants leads to leaner cattle and more efficient use of feed. Typically, cattle raised with growth promotants can have up to 18 percent more lean muscle than other cattle, with an equal decrease in fat.
  12. 3 ounces of beef from an implanted steer contains only 1.9 nanograms of estrogen. While, 3 ounces of beef from a non-implanted steer would have 1.3 nanograms. The difference is less than one nanogram (or one-billionth of a gram). Many other foods contain more estrogen, all of which can be consumed safely. Estrogen levels in other foods: Cup of milk: 11 nanograms, Serving of potatoes: 225 nanograms, Serving of green peas: 340 nanograms, An ice cream cone: 520 nanograms, Serving of cabbage: 2000 nanograms, Serving of wheat germ: 3,400 nanograms and A serving of soybean oil: 1,680,000 nanograms.
  13. The majority of cattle that go to the packing plant are 24 months old or less.
  14. For more detailed information you can go to Cattle that tested positive for BSE never entered the food supply. Another cow was found with BSE in Washington state, however, this animal had been imported from Canada.
  15. Although other kinds of beef are available, conventional beef is the type that most of America consumes.
  16. If an animal does get sick and requires antibiotics for health, the animal will be given the medicine but may not be qualified to be in the certified organic program.
  17. Although grass finished beef does contain more CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) than conventional beef, it does not contain a significant amount of this fatty acid in comparison to fish and other seafood.