Name: Shishir Mahatara Chhetri
Natural Resource Management College
This study covered the whole territory of Nepal which is located between latitudes
26°22'–30°27′N and longitudes 80°04'–88°12′E, with an area of 147,516 km2
Politically the country is divided into seven federal states and 77 districts. The land
cover in Nepal mainly includes different types of forests (broadleaf, needle leaf,
mixed), croplands, shrub lands, grasslands, bare lands, Built Area, Clouds as well as
permanent ice/snow (Wang, 2004; Uddin et. al., 2015).
Nepal has five climatic zones, Tropical zone lie below 1000m, Subtropical zone 1000-
2000m), Temperate zone (2000-3000m), Subalpine zone (3000-4000m), Alpine zone
Land cover Map
Land cover is the physical material at the surface of Earth. Land covers
include Grassland, Trees, Bare ground, Water, flooded vegetation, Agricultural Crops,
Built Area etc.
Land use is the term used to describe the human use of land. It represents the
economic and cultural activities (e.g., agricultural, residential, industrial, mining, and
recreational uses) that are practiced at a given place.
Land use differs from land cover in that some uses are not always physically obvious
(e.g., land used for producing timber but not harvested for many years and forested
land designated as wilderness will both appear as forest-covered, but they have
Land use changes occur constantly and at many scales, and can have specific and
cumulative effects on air and water quality, watershed function, generation of waste,
extent and quality of wildlife habitat, climate, and human health.
Types of land Use categories and Description
Areas where water was predominantly present throughout the year; may not cover
areas with sporadic or ephemeral water; contains little to no sparse vegetation, no
rock outcrop nor built up features like docks; examples: rivers, ponds, lakes,
oceans, flooded salt plains.
Any significant clustering of tall (~15 feet or higher) dense vegetation, typically with
a closed or dense canopy; examples: wooded vegetation, clusters of dense tall
vegetation within savannas, plantations, swamp or mangroves (dense/tall
vegetation with ephemeral water or canopy too thick to detect water underneath).
3. Flooded vegetation
Areas of any type of vegetation with obvious intermixing of water throughout a
majority of the year; seasonally flooded area that is a mix of grass/shrub/trees/bare
ground; examples: flooded mangroves, emergent vegetation, rice paddies and
other heavily irrigated and inundated agriculture.
Human planted/plotted cereals, grasses, and crops not at tree height; examples:
corn, wheat, soy, fallow plots of structured land.
5. Built Area
Human made structures; major road and rail networks; large homogenous
impervious surfaces including parking structures, office buildings and residential
housing; examples: houses, dense villages / towns / cities, paved roads, asphalt.
6. Bare ground
Areas of rock or soil with very sparse to no vegetation for the entire year; large
areas of sand and deserts with no to little vegetation; examples: exposed rock or
soil, desert and sand dunes, dry salt flats/pans, dried lake beds, mines.
Large homogenous areas of permanent snow or ice, typically only in mountain
areas or highest latitudes; examples: glaciers, permanent snowpack, snow fields.
No land cover information due to persistent cloud cover.
Open areas covered in homogenous grasses with little to no taller vegetation; wild
cereals and grasses with no obvious human plotting (i.e., not a plotted field
examples: moderate to sparse cover of bushes, shrubs and tufts of grass,
savannas with very sparse grasses, trees or other plants.
Application of land cover mapping
Local and regional planning
Vulnerability and Risk Assessments
Monitoring the effects of climate change
Alternative landscape futures and conservation
Environmental impact assessment
forest and land cover analysis. (2019). forest research and traning center.
(Wang, 2004; Uddin et. al., 2015)
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