1. UNDERGUIDANCE –
Mr. MAYANK KUMAR GAUTAM
CHANDRA PRAKASH KUWANR(1473720013)
• BASIC LOGIC
• PROTOTYPE OF OUR STICK
• USAGE OF DIFFERENT SENSORS
• ATMEGA 16
• ULTRASONIC SENSOR
• IR SENSOR
• WATER SENSOR
• FIRE SENSOR
• LIGHT SENSOR
• OUTPUT DEVICES
• SOFTWARE USED
1. Vision is the most important part of human
physiology as 83% of information human being gets
from the environment is via sight.
2. The 2011 statistics by the World Health
Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 285
billion people in world with visual impairment, 39
billion of which are blind and 246 with low vision.
3. Here, we develop a tool which can serve as a blind
stick being more efficient and helpful than the
4. BASIC LOGIC
• Five different sensors with microcontroller
interface are used which are connected to
buzzer and vibrator.
• ATMEGA 16 as the main microcontroller is
7. USAGE OF DIFFERENT SENSORS
• Ultrasonic sensor is used for obstacle avoidance. The vibrator vibrates
when an obstacle is encountered which helps in alerting the blind person
and allows enough time to change their path.
• IR sensor is used for pit and staircase detection.
• Water sensor is used to detect the presence of water and provide an alert
in time for path change so as to avoid slipping.
• Fire sensor is used for avoiding fire.
• Light sensor is useful at night. It alerts the people in the surrounding area
that a blind person is walking and to allow space so that the blind person
can walk easily.
8. ATMEGA 16
• ATmega16 is a 40 pin
microcontroller. There are 32 I/O
(input/output) lines which are
divided into four 8-bit ports
designated as PORTA, PORTB,
PORTC and PORTD.
• ATmega16 has various in-built
peripherals like USART, ADC, Analog
Comparator, SPI, JTAG etc. Each I/O
pin has an alternative task related
to in-built peripherals.
9. ULTRASONIC SENSOR
Ultrasonic sensors works on a principle
similar to radar or sonar which evaluates
attributes of a target by interpreting the
echoes from radio or sound waves
respectively. Ultrasonic sensors generate
high frequency sound waves and evaluate
the echo which is received back by the
10. IR SENSOR
• Infrared sensors can measure the
heat of an object, as well as detect
• IR sensor work on the principal in
which IR LED emits IR radiation
and Photodiode sense that IR
11. WATER SENSOR
• A water sensor is an
electronic device that is
designed to detect the
presence of water and provide
an alert in time to allow the
prevention of water damage.
• A common design is a small
cable or device that lies flat on
a floor and relies on the
electrical conductivity of
water to decrease the
resistance across two
12. LIGHT SENSOR
• Photoresistor changes its
resistance drastically based on
the ambient lighting in an
environment. Exposed to
darkness, a photoresistor has
a tremendous amount of
resistance. When exposed to
bright light, a photoresistor's
resistance drops drastically.
• The LM358 chip in this circuit
is used as a comparator to
13. FIRE SENSOR
• Thermistors usually have
coefficients which means
the resistance of the
thermistor decreases as the
• Buzzer is used for output.
14. OUTPUT DEVICES
• A buzzer or beeper is
an audio signaling device, which
maybe mechanical, electromechanic
al, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of
buzzers and beepers include alarm
devices, timers, and confirmation of
user input such as a mouse click or
It is a p–n junction diode, which
emits light when activated. When a
suitable voltage is applied to the
leads, electrons are able to
recombine with electron holes
within the device, releasing energy in
the form of photons. This effect is
called electroluminescence, and the
color of the light is determined by
the energy band gap of the
15. OUTPUT DEVICES
• A vibrator is a mechanical device to generate vibration. The vibration is
often generated by an electric motor with an unbalanced mass on
• Vibrating motors can be found inside cell phones, pagers, gaming
controllers, and personal massagers
• The project proposed the design and architecture of a new
concept of Smart Electronic Guiding Stick for blind people.
• The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it can
prove to be very low cost solution to millions of blind
person worldwide. The proposed combination of various
working units makes a real-time system that monitors
position of the user and provides dual feedback making
navigation more safe and secure.
• It can be further improved to have more decision taking
capabilities by employing varied types of sensors and thus
could be used for different applications. It aims to solve the
problems faced by the blind people in their daily life. The
system also takes measures to ensure their safety.