3. A Biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites
(microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits
many tests to be performed at the same time in order to
achieve higher throughput and speed.
•Based on detection of
Uses Low Frequency
4. Size: 2 to 12 inches,
Smaller than an
uncooked rice grain.
Small volume of
tests can be performed
at the same time
6. Affymetrix GeneChip
The patient donates test tissue that is processed on
the array to detect disease-related mutations based
on certain diagnostic ‘Markers’
7. DNA chip
9. MicroarrayTechnology: A DNA microarray (also
commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a
collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a
solid surface. Used to measure the expression levels of
large numbers of genes simultaneously or to
genotype multiple regions of a genome.
MicrofluidicTechnology: Refers to design of systems
in which low volumes of fluids are processed to
achieve multiplexing, automation, and design of
systems to achieve multiplexing, automation,
and high-throughput screening.
11. The actual biochip implant
It is of two types
1) Passive transponder
2) active transponder
The communication between biochip and reader is via low-
frequency radio waves.
It is Composed of 4 parts.
2) antenna coil
4) glass capsule
13. Provide energy to activate the implanted biochip.
Carries receiving coil to receive a id number.
Has a software that can decode the received number
and display on a screen (LED).
15. BIOCHIPS are miniature sized (micro – nano dimensions), thus
enabling thousands of bio reactions performed simultaneously.
Can be introduced into skin (no surgery required).
Easy Monitoring and Instantaneous analysis on BIOCHIPS.
BIOCHIPS deals with small volumes of samples.
BIOCHIPS can be linked with GPS.
BIOCHIPS , in present day use , has been extremely useful in early
detection of diseases, DNA sequencing technology.
BOCHIPS helps in identification of persons uniquely.
Low operational costs.
Exact diagnosis & negliglible side effects.
Automated process , no sample preparation required before tests.
16. Initial equipment capital requirement is very high.
( Sophisticated manufacturing )
In earlier Implants , BIOCHIPS were undetected by Metal
Detectors due to their micron size.
The Immunization Implantation of BIOCHIPS into blood
may be dangerous!!!!!!!!
Chips once introduced into body cant be removed.
Thy raise the issues of PERSONAL PRIVACY (if used in
case of humans)
The chip could be broken in the body & turn out fatal.
As the BIOCHIPS implanted in the body skin is in contact
of DNA ,it may lead to cellular mutation andCANCER!!!
They cant be fabricated at higher density and mass.
19. First of all, biochips are defined as devices on
which biomolecules such as
DNA –---> DNA chips
Proteins----> protein chips
Sugar chains---->glycochips and
Cells –--> cell chips.
A large number of target molecules and compounds that
specifically interact with biomolecules on chips can be
simultaneously analyzed in a large number of samples in
20. Biochips have become indispensable tools
to develop new drugs and to improve
existing ones.The power of biochips, and
in particular DNA arrays, is their ability to
experimentally probe gene expression
BIOCHIPS identify and prioritise Drug
This will lead to growth of
protein biochip > DNA biochip
as drug targets are mainly proteins
Small sized BIOCHIPS tend to be more
21. The chip can be integrated with a glucose detector.
The chip will allow diabetics to easily monitor the level
of glucose in the blood.
A light-emitting diode (LED) in the biochip starts off
the detection process.
Glucose is detected because the sugar reduces the
amount of light that the fluorescent chemical re-
emits.The more the glucose levels, the less light that
23. Oxygen sensors can measure breathing rates,
specially in ICUs.
The oxygen-sensing chip sends light
pulses out into the body.
The light is absorbed to varying extents,
depending on how much oxygen is being carried in
The rushes of blood pumped by the heart are also
detected, so the same chip can be used as a pulse
24. Sensors can be embedded into a biochip which can detect
the flow of fluids.
A huge variety of hardware circuitry (Sensor)
is available in electronics to detect the
flow of fluid, embedded into a biochip.
It continuously monitors the blood flow rate and when the
pressure is in its low or high extremes, it can be immediately
informed through the reader to take up remedial measures.
26. • Sensor biochips can be used to establish in the
laboratory whether or not a particular cancer drug
is likely to work in an individual patient's body.
• Shown here is a ceramic version of the chip -- just a
few millimeters across but packed with sensors.
27. • A lab-on-a-chip is a device -- made of glass, for example -- that
is just a few millimeters across and has bioelectronic sensors
that monitor the vitality of living cells.
• The chips sit in small wells, known as microtiter plates, and are
covered with a patient's tumour cells.
• A robot changes the culture fluid in each well
containing a chip at a few minutes time intervals.
• The microsensors on the chip record changes in the
acid content of the medium and the cells' oxygen
• Photographs of the process are also taken by a
microscope fitted underneath the microtiter plate.
28. • The robots and microtiter plates
are kept in a chamber which
provides an environment similar
to that of the human body.
• After the tumour cells have been
able to divide undisturbed for a
few hours, the robot applies an
• If their metabolic activity
declines over the next day or
two, the active substance was
able to kill the tumour cells and
the drug is effective.
29. Get affected by hydrodynamic forces
Cells undergo migration
Put Biochips inside it
Mixture of normal cells and cancer cells
Collect blood samples from patients
30. The bigger cells go up
to the cancer cell outlet
The smaller cells get
pushed down and
essentially they get
31. Once the reader is connected to the internet,
satellite and a centralized database is maintained
about the (biochip) creatures.
Enables tracing of a person/animal
anywhere in the world :
32. i) Identification of Endangered Wild animals:
• Number of species
• Detect if animal is sick
ii) Identification &Tracking of pets worldwide.
iii) Identification of humans
• Missing children and natural calamity victims location &
• In Defense, Soldiers can be identified and even detected
if wounded or not.
34. Have been used successfully for the detection
of mutations in specific genes as diagnostic
"markers" of the onset of a particular disease.
The patient donates test tissue that is
processed on the array to detect disease-
The primary example of this approach is the
35. The p53 GeneChip is designed to detect single nucleotide
polymorphisms of the p53 tumour-suppressor gene.
the HIV GeneChip is designed to detect mutations in the HIV-1
protease and also the virus's reverse transcriptase genes.
the P450 GeneChip focuses on mutations of key liver enzymes that
Affymetrix has additional GeneChips in development, including
biochips for detecting the breast cancer gene, BRCA1, as well as
identifying bacterial pathogens.
Other examples of biochips used to detect gene mutations include
the HyGnostics modules made by Hyseq.
36. A second application for DNA-based biochips is to
detect the differences in gene expression levels in
cells that are diseased versus those that are healthy.
Understanding these differences in gene expression
not only serves as a diagnostic tool, but also provides
drug makers with unique targets that are present only
in diseased cells.
For example, during the process of cancer
transformation oncogenes and proto-oncogenes are
activated, which never occurs in healthy cells.
Targeting these genes may lead to new therapeutic
37. Examples of biochips designed for gene
expression profile analysis include Affymetrix's
standardized GeneChips for a variety of human,
murine, and yeast genes, as well as several
custom designs for particular strategic
Hyseq's HyX Gene Discovery Modules for genes
from tissues of the cardiovascular and central
nervous systems, or from tissues exposed to
38. Application of Biochip and Microarray
The BT chip is DNA and oligo DNA
microarrays based on differential gene
expression in brain tumours.
40. In addition to DNA/RNA biochips, protein
biochips are being developed in increasing
Example, development of a quantitative
immunoassay for prostate-specific
membrane antigen (PSMA).
It is based on a protein chip and surface-
enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass
42. Injected by a hypodermic syringe beneath the
Injection is safe and simple.
Anesthesia is not required.
Usually injected behind the neck.
43. The bio-microsystems market is estimated to 620
Millions of Dollars by recapturing the sales of major
actors (Affymetrix, Agilent, Ciphergen).
DNA chips represent today the major type with
more than 83 % of sales.
Lab on chip is emerging –mostly with Caliper sales
– and represents 10 % of the total.
The remainder consists of protein chips(mostly
Ciphergen) and other types of DNA arrays.
45. A chip implanted some where in human body
might serve as a combination of
Personal identification etc.
No longer would it be needed to worry about
losing all above thing.
Can also widely established in veterinary field.
47. Biochips are :-
Advantages upon conventionalAnalyzer
Expected to become economically advantageous
attributes that make them analogous to computer
The future which we imagine of, the CYBER FUTURE
will have the BIOCHIP IMPLANTSYSTEM as an
integral component to satisfy the ever growing