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  1. SHYAM GIRJESHKUMAR MISHRA 33 (hm) Sub : cpi Submitted to : DR HIMANSHU SANGHVI SIR Project report on invention of pencil
  2. AGENDA Introduction History Of Pencil Conrad GesnerAnd His Pencil Nicholas Jacques Conte Pencil Manufacturing Types Of Pencil Grading And Classification Of Pencils Conclusion References
  3. PENCIL: A pencil is a writing implement or art medium constructed of a narrow, solid pigment core inside a protective casing which prevents the core from being broken or leaving markson the user’s hand during use.
  4. HISTORY OF PENCIL 1564- This is where the story of the graphite pencil begins. The first pencil was invented by “Conrad Gesner”. The Gesnerpencil wascalled as “lead pencils”. This "Gesner pencil" has a special history because some people believe itwas used by Shakespeare. In Gesner pencil they use only pure graphite, so it is verydifficult to use, because thegraphitewasverysoft When people handle this pencil itwill be broken.
  6. In 1795, Nicholas-Jacques Conte of France discovered the process of mixing graphite with clay. This mixture was then placed in a kiln fire, which produced a superiorwriting material. After the kiln fire, strips were cut and placed intowood.
  7. Nicholas-Jacques Conte
  8. Pencil Manufacturing The topsequence shows the old method that required pieces of graphite to becut to size; the lower sequence is the new, current method using rods of graphiteand clay .
  9. MANUFACTURE  The pencil isactually a mixof finelygrinded graphiteand clay powders.  Before the two substances are mixed, theyare separately cleaned and dried in a manner that creates large square cakes.  Once thecakes have fullydried, thegraphiteand theclay squaresare mixed togetherusing water.  Theamount of clay and graphitedecides the pencil hardness  And theamount of timespent on grinding the mixture determines thequalityof the lead.  The mixture is then shaped, cut, and then tempered in a kiln.  The resulting stringsaredipped in oil or molten wax, this final process used forsmooth writing abilityof the pencil.
  10. Types Of Pencil By marking material:- Graphitepencils Solid graphitepencils Charcoal pencils Carbonpencils Colored pencils, orpencil crayons Greasepencils Watercolorpencils Erasablecolorpencils
  11. SHAPE & SIZE SHAPE:- Triangular Hexagonal Round Bendable (flexible plastic) SIZE:- Typical(19 cm[7.5inch]) Biggest[(23 m) long]it is world record.
  12. BY MANUFACTURE Mechanical Pencils Plastic Pencils Pop a Point Pencils
  13. ERASER ATTACHED PENCILS On 30 March 1858, the first patent was introduced. Forattaching an eraser to theend of a pencil.
  14. Grading and Classification  H ("hardness") B ("blackness")  F ("fineness") The standard writing pencil is graded HB.
  15. Smart pencil Technology has become very smart that they have created a smart pencil which is used in computers, smartphones, etc electronic gadgets
  16. CONCLUSION Pencilsare so useful and socommon in ourdaily lives Pencils trulyare oneof thegreatest technological inventionsof all-time. One pencil has the potential todraw a line 35 miles long, write an average of 45,000 words, absorb 17 sharpening, delete itsown errors.
  17. THANKYOU……