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Smart Cities Underprivileged Citizens-Rotary Club Meerut_Siddharth-14-5-15

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In India’s glittering cities opulence grows along with deprivation and poverty. Health, nutrition, poor living environment, uncertain livelihoods, low access to children's education, poor access to entitlements affect lives of under-privileged city-dwellers.
What Approaches have worked, helped learn practical lessons and the ‘How to do’ with relevant stakeholders:

1. Spatial city and Neighbourhood maps help better understand living environment
2. Slum-Community/Women’s Groups increase demand for services [Mahila Arogya Samiti in NUHM]
3. Collective Social Needs Savings & Loans [Community Revolving Fund in NUHM]
4. Gentle Negotiation: Under-served communities address determinants of urban health across sectors, through community applications for services
5. Youth-children groups emerging as ‘Force Gen-next’
6. Community’s Own Efforts when authorities do not respond
7. Facilitating Access to Picture ID, Proof of Address and social benefits
8. Facilitating Access to Food subsidy cards
9. Multi-dimensional Efforts to Improve Health, Nutrition, Environment, Related Services: Through Coordination & Linkage Building – towards addressing socio-environmental-economic determinants of health

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Smart Cities Underprivileged Citizens-Rotary Club Meerut_Siddharth-14-5-15

  1. 1. Smart Cities: Underprivileged Citizens and Ways Towards Equitable Access to Services and Well-being Siddharth Agarwal Urban Health Resource Centre, India May 14, 2015 Rotary Club Meerut Chamber of Commerce, Bombay Bazaar, Meerut Find us on facebook www.uhrc.in
  2. 2. Outline  Urbanization, Health and well-being challenges  What Approaches have worked, helped learn practical lessons and the ‘How to do’ with relevant stakeholders:  # 1 Spatial city and Neighbourhood maps help better understand living environment  # 2 Slum-Community/Women’s Groups increase demand for services [Mahila Arogya Samiti in NUHM]  # 3 Collective Social Needs Savings & Loans [Community Revolving Fund in NUHM]  # 4 Gentle Negotiation: Under-served communities address determinants of urban health across sectors, through community applications for services  # 5 Youth-children groups emerging as ‘Force Gen-next’  # 6 Community’s Own Efforts when authorities do not respond  # 7 Facilitating Access to Picture ID, Proof of Address and social benefits  # 8 Facilitating Access to Food subsidy cards  # 9 Multi-dimensional Efforts to Improve Health, Nutrition, Environment, Related Services: Through Coordination & Linkage Building – towards addressing social determinants of health  Urbanization, Health and well-being challenges  What Approaches have worked, helped learn practical lessons and the ‘How to do’ with relevant stakeholders:  # 1 Spatial city and Neighbourhood maps help better understand living environment  # 2 Slum-Community/Women’s Groups increase demand for services [Mahila Arogya Samiti in NUHM]  # 3 Collective Social Needs Savings & Loans [Community Revolving Fund in NUHM]  # 4 Gentle Negotiation: Under-served communities address determinants of urban health across sectors, through community applications for services  # 5 Youth-children groups emerging as ‘Force Gen-next’  # 6 Community’s Own Efforts when authorities do not respond  # 7 Facilitating Access to Picture ID, Proof of Address and social benefits  # 8 Facilitating Access to Food subsidy cards  # 9 Multi-dimensional Efforts to Improve Health, Nutrition, Environment, Related Services: Through Coordination & Linkage Building – towards addressing social determinants of health
  3. 3. India’s Urbanizing economy: Affluence and Deprivation Juxtaposed  In India’s glittering cities opulence grows along with deprivation and poverty  60% of Mumbai’s population lives on 8% of land [Parsuraman, S. 2007] and contribute to economy in diverse ways, living in severe congestion  In Delhi, water-supply for planned colonies is 225 lpcd (liter per capita daily) and 50 lpcd for listed slums  Urban poor contribute substantially to India’s economic growth:  Between 60- 90% of urban poor are involved in urban informal sector.  Urban sector contributes 60% -70% of GDP  In India’s glittering cities opulence grows along with deprivation and poverty  60% of Mumbai’s population lives on 8% of land [Parsuraman, S. 2007] and contribute to economy in diverse ways, living in severe congestion  In Delhi, water-supply for planned colonies is 225 lpcd (liter per capita daily) and 50 lpcd for listed slums  Urban poor contribute substantially to India’s economic growth:  Between 60- 90% of urban poor are involved in urban informal sector.  Urban sector contributes 60% -70% of GDP Parsuraman, S - http://www.karmayog.org/urbandvlp/upload/21756/Newspaper-essays_Prarsuraman.pdf. This indicates high density of living space for 60% living in slums, chawls, informal settlements. Population density of Greater Mumbai (area under Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai) estimated at 24,812 (Mumbai Suburban district & Mumbai City district) persons per sq. km. as per Census 2011 . Density of Mumbai City – 43,447 per sq. km.
  4. 4. Challenging Environment of an Urbanizing World Rolling incense sticks to support family income
  5. 5. Unhealthy Living Environment
  6. 6. Approach # 1a: Mapping Helps Inclusion of Unlisted Slums/Clusters SLUM NUMBER POPULATION LISTED 102 455923 UNLISTED 85 216935 TOTAL 187 672858 LOCATION OF SLUMS Meerut City 6Spatial city mapping of vulnerable clusters integral strategy of NUHM
  7. 7. Community groups in slums prepare maps to a) Ensure that no family is left out from lists used for housing, food subsidy, entitlements; b) Track access to health services e.g. Immunization and ANC , HIV testing, c) Help identifying and providing services/linkage to recent migrants Approach:1 (b) Demonstrate uses of Neighborhood Mapping 7
  8. 8. Approach 2: Demand side strategies  Cluster teams of Women’s Groups:  Slum-Community/Women’s Groups as agents of change  Cluster teams or Congress of slum women’s groups gives stronger voice and greater negotiation power Women’s groups are Mahila Arogya Samitis mandated in NUHM 1 1NUHM Framework for Implementation, May 2013
  9. 9. Network of slum-based community groups in Indore and Agra UHRC Indore/Agra Training, Monitoring, Supervision & problem solving Training, Monitoring, Supervision & problem solving • Project coordinator • Field coordinators Linkage with Civic Authorities Linkage with Civic Authorities  8 to 23 women groups in a large slum cluster  10-14 members per group  30 to 70,000 slum population per cluster team 5 Cluster teams 7-37 members (1 per group) (has office bearers, bank account, registered NGO) • Grant to cluster team • Programme Monitoring • Grant to cluster team • Programme Monitoring UHRC Delhi
  10. 10. Approach 3: Building skills, self- reliance and confidence  Collective Social Needs Savings and Loans: for Health and related Emergency, Child Education, Starting a small business, purchasing food grains, Marriage, getting assets back from money lenders This approach is a mandated in NUHM as ‘revolving community fund’1 1NUHM Framework for Implementation, May 2013
  11. 11. Utilization of loans from Women’s Groups Data from collective savings registers of 125 women’s groups in Agra and Indore during April‐13 to March‐14 shows that of the 3327 loans given:  925 loans (27.8%) for health needs, of which 550 loans served maternal‐child health needs, and 375 loans served other health needs  531 loans (15.96%) helped overcome challenges that interrupt or lead to drop-out in children’s education  524 loans (15.74%) helped start/expand livelihoods  424 loans (12.74%) helped store grains at harvest time, a measure to address food insecurity during low (or no) wage-earning times  221 loans (6.64%) supported girl marriages  302 loans (9.07%) enabled repaying money‐lender debts  190 loans (5.71%) were used for grocery/ kitchen expenses  210 loans (6.31%) enabled house improvements, land lease, toilet construction Data from collective savings registers of 125 women’s groups in Agra and Indore during April‐13 to March‐14 shows that of the 3327 loans given:  925 loans (27.8%) for health needs, of which 550 loans served maternal‐child health needs, and 375 loans served other health needs  531 loans (15.96%) helped overcome challenges that interrupt or lead to drop-out in children’s education  524 loans (15.74%) helped start/expand livelihoods  424 loans (12.74%) helped store grains at harvest time, a measure to address food insecurity during low (or no) wage-earning times  221 loans (6.64%) supported girl marriages  302 loans (9.07%) enabled repaying money‐lender debts  190 loans (5.71%) were used for grocery/ kitchen expenses  210 loans (6.31%) enabled house improvements, land lease, toilet construction
  12. 12. Skill Building, Access to Government Schemes Kamkaji Mahila Card Silai Centre
  13. 13. Approach 4: Gentle Negotiation through Collective Petitions, reminders (Written requests to officers of Health, Nutrition & Environmental Departments) Petition Response of Civic Authority
  14. 14. Letter in support of petition/request by politician Letter in support of petition/request by politician
  15. 15. Approach 5: Youth-children groups emerging as ‘Force Gen-next’ With continual mentoring, motivation Youth-children groups in slums are not only improving their own lives but also contribute to their societies in tangible ways. Promoting Hygiene, Hand-washing Youth petitions to civic authorities for streets, garbage cleaning
  16. 16. Cleaner Drains Before After During 2013-2014: 100,000 slum population benefited (Agra + Indore) from cleaning of drains
  17. 17. Electricity Connection During 2013-2014: 12000 slum population benefited (Agra + Indore) from electricity connections Before After
  18. 18. Improvement of Slum Pathways, Sewer During 2013-2014: 50,000 slum population benefited (Agra + Indore) from roads paved
  19. 19. Improvement of Slum Pathways, Lanes During 2013-2014: 40,000 slum population benefited (Agra + Indore) from roads paved
  20. 20. Water Tanker Installation During 2013-2014: 37000 slum population benefited (Indore & Agra) from water supply
  21. 21. Approach # 6: Community’s Own Efforts Community Contributes to build, re-build vital bridge in Banganga Area, Indore Before Oct’11 Oct’11 Aug’12 Oct’12
  22. 22. Elevating House Plinth to prevent rain-water entering house Rain water enters houseRain water enters house Rain water does not enter elevated houseElevating House Plinth
  23. 23. Approach # 7  Perseverant Efforts to enable Government Picture ID, Proof of Address, Certificate of Birth Date  Perseverant Efforts to enable Government Picture ID, Proof of Address, Certificate of Birth Date
  24. 24. Women showing their UID-Aadhaar Cards Picture ID & Proof of Address During Apr 13 – Mar 14: 8000 persons benefited from proof of address and Photo ID
  25. 25. Birth Certificate (Required to applying for child education related benefits)
  26. 26. Approach # 8 Efforts towards Translating Mandate into Reality: Food Subsidy Cards and Social Benefit Schemes Approach # 8 Efforts towards Translating Mandate into Reality: Food Subsidy Cards and Social Benefit Schemes
  27. 27. Food Subsidy Card as per Food Security Act, 2013
  28. 28. Dept. WCD ICDS, Girl Child Benefit, Others Health Dept ANC, Immunization JSY, Other services Politicians Voice, support for applications Municipal Corprn/ JNNUR- Roads, drains, water., toilet, tenure, housing Federation of Women’s Groups Approach #9: Multi-dimensional Efforts to Improve Health and Related Services Through Coordination & Linkage Building Dist. Magistrate’s Office Social Assistance Programs Old Age & Widow Pension Food Subsidy BPL, APL Cards Labour Dept Domestic worker registration Politicians Voice, support for applications Municipal Corprn/ JNNUR- Roads, drains, water., toilet, tenure, housing Others Voter ID, Adhar, Domicile Certificate, caste Certificate UHRC Indore/ Agra
  29. 29. Gender empowerment enhances caring capacity of woman and family  Through women’s groups, gender equation is positively improved at family and society level  Women’s enhanced access to resources and greater capacity to take timely care of themselves, children, and the family helps the family and community  Through women’s groups, gender equation is positively improved at family and society level  Women’s enhanced access to resources and greater capacity to take timely care of themselves, children, and the family helps the family and community
  30. 30. Empowered Assertive Women Take Action……. Women wielding bamboos against alcoholism vending points, gambling joints
  31. 31. ….and no boundaries can stop these empowered women Women’s group members at the Hindustan Times Social Innovators Conclave, 2014 Vociferous women organise a ‘Jan Jagran’ Rally
  32. 32. “There are ought to be something very special about the boundary conditions of the universe, and what can be more special than that there is no boundary.” – Stephen Hawking
  33. 33. Functioning, Accountable System for Urban Health, Nutrition and Well-being Long Lever of : a) Complementary skills, Knowledge, Experience a) Commitment , Motivation b) Understanding of problems c) Accountability, responsibility With Hope and ConfidenceWith Hope and Confidence 33 Functioning, Accountable System for Urban Health, Nutrition and Well-being Long Lever of : a) Complementary skills, Knowledge, Experience a) Commitment , Motivation b) Understanding of problems c) Accountability, responsibility “A small body of determined spirits fired by an“A small body of determined spirits fired by an unquenchable faith in their mission, can alter theunquenchable faith in their mission, can alter the course of history”course of history” -- MohandasMohandas KaramchandKaramchand GandhiGandhi www.uhrc.in ; admin@uhrc.in Social Orgnaisations, Professionals, Govt. Managers, Public & Private Sectors, slum CBOs, Civil Society

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