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Network Function Virtualization : Infrastructure Overview

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Network Function Virtualisation: Infrastructure Overview

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Network Function Virtualization : Infrastructure Overview

  1. 1. Network Function Virtualisation - Infrastructure Overview Neelima Sharma
  2. 2. The content of this presentation is taken from the ETSI NFV specifications and from various presentations available on internet
  3. 3. What is covered…  NFV Infrastructure – Overview  NFV Infrastructure – Architecture  NFV Infrastructure – NFVI and Cloud Computing  NFV Infrastructure – Domain architecture and associated interfaces  NFV Infrastructure – Compute Domain  NFV Infrastructure – Hypervisor Domain  NFV Infrastructure – Network Domain  NFV Infrastructure – Challenges
  4. 4. NFV Infrastructure - Overview  Below figure illustrate the section related to the Infrastructure
  5. 5. NFV Infrastructure - Overview  NFV Infrastructure architecture is primarily concerned  Compute Domain  HyperVisor Domain  Infrastructure Domain  Hypervisor Domain provides  Sufficient abstraction of the hardware for the portability of the Software appliances  Provide compute domain resources to the S/W appliances VM machines  Provides management interfaces to the orchestration and management system
  6. 6. NFV Infrastructure – Reference Architecture Framework
  7. 7. NFV Infrastructure – Architectural Principles of VNF  System engineering approach of defining components as functional block and their interconnection  After network functions are virtualised
  8. 8. NFV Infrastructure – Architectural Principles of VNF  Behavior of functional block is determined by  Static transfer function of the functional blocks  Dynamic state of the functional blocks  Inputs it received in its interface  Virtualization resulted in the following  Division of functional block between a host function and VNF  Creation of new container interface between the host function and the VNF it is hosting  Division of the interface between the two network functions which are now virtualized between infrastructure interface and a virtualized interface  Relationship between VNF and host  VNF is a configuration of the host function  VNF is an abstract view of the host function when configured by VNF
  9. 9. NFV Infrastructure – Architectural Principles of VNF  NFV architecture is defined using the following entities  Host functions with their associated offered container interfaces and associated infrastructure interfaces  VNF with their associated used container interfaces and virtualized interfaces
  10. 10. NFV Infrastructure – Management and Orchestration of VNF  Network functions have an interface ( North bound interface) to a management and orchestration function
  11. 11. NFV Infrastructure – NFVI and Cloud Computing  Five essentials characteristics of cloud services  On demand self service  Broad network access  Resource pooling  Rapid elasticity  Measured service  Service models impacting NFVI  SaaS VNF’s are software applications on cloud VNF’s are executed according to a private cloud model  Example is VNFaaS
  12. 12. NFV Infrastructure – NFVI and Cloud Computing  PaaS Service model consistent with deployment by network operators of services  VNPaaS is a use case  IaaS Capability provided is the provisioning of compute, storage and communication resources for the application to run  Good use case is NFVIaaS
  13. 13. NFV Infrastructure – Domain Architecture and Associated Interfaces
  14. 14. NFV Infrastructure – Domain Architecture and Associated Interfaces  VNF can be decomposed and made up from sub-parts which are themselves VNF which are interconnected by infrastructure  VNF’s can automatically request for management and orchestration  Network interfaces must be decomposed between the infrastructure protocols and the VNF protocols  Infrastructure network is completely abstracted by the network infrastructure container interface  NFV infrastructure, applications and MANO are fully interoperable with the existing OSS/BSS and carrier networks  Below attached excel provides the details of the interfaces
  15. 15. NFV Infrastructure – Compute Domain  Role of the Compute domain is to provide the interface to the network infrastructure domain but does not support network connectivity  Principal elements of the compute domain  CPU  Network Interface Controller (NIC)  Storage  Server  Chasis  Remote management  Functional description of the compute domain needs to reference the speed of execution
  16. 16. NFV Infrastructure – Compute Domain  Primary characteristics of storage are :  Latency in accessing a specific state held in storage  Size of the storage  Volatility or persistence of the storage  Scope of Compute node includes  CPU with storage  Hardware for encryption and decryption  Packet switching  Accelerated packet forwarding
  17. 17. NFV Infrastructure – Hypervisor Domain  Mediates the resources of the computer domain to the virtual machines which includes :  CPU  NIC and so on …
  18. 18. NFV Infrastructure – Hypervisor Domain  Forthcoming hardware improve the performance of VM’s which includes  multicore processors supporting multiple independent parallel threads of execution  system-on-chip processors that integrate multiple cores, DRAM interfaces, network interfaces, storage,interfaces and hardware acceleration for security, multicore processing, networking, storage and application acceleration.  specific CPU enhancements/instructions to control memory allocation and direct access on I/O devices to VM memory allocations  PCI-e bus enhancements, notably SR-IOV
  19. 19. NFV Infrastructure – Hypervisor Domain  Specific features of hypervisor support for high performance NFV VMs include  exclusive allocation of whole CPU cores to VMs  direct memory mapped polled drivers for VMs to directly access the physical NICs using user mode instructions requiring no ‘context switching’  direct memory mapped polled drivers for interVM communications again using user mode instructions requiring no ‘context switching  vSwitch implementation as a high performance VM again using direct memory mapping and user mode instructions requiring no ‘context switching’
  20. 20. NFV Infrastructure – Hypervisor Domain Architecture  Below figure illustrates the hypervisor domain architecture
  21. 21. NFV Infrastructure – Network Domain Reference point Architecture  Below figure illustrates the network domain reference point architecture in the NFVI
  22. 22. NFV Infrastructure – Network Infrastructure Domain  Roles of network domains includes :  Communication channel between the VNFC’s of a distributed VNF  Communication channel between different VNFs  Communication channel between VNFs and their orchestration and management  Communication channel between components of the NFVI and their orchestration and management  Means of remote deployment of VNFCs  Means of interconnection with the existing carrier network
  23. 23. NFV Infrastructure – Network Infrastructure Domain  Essential elements needed for providing the connectivity with domain:  An infrastructure addressing scheme with address allocation and management  A routing process which can relate infrastructure addresses to routes through the infrastructure network topology  A bandwidth allocation process  A set of OAM processes to verify reliability, availability and integrity of connectivity services  Requirement for bandwidth aspects requires :  Permanently allocated, fully guaranteed bandwidth  Respecting prioritization markings of the packet  Guaranteed minimal latency variation
  24. 24. NFV Infrastructure – Network Infrastructure Domain  Requirement for infrastructure network and VNF protocols to work together  Common Header MAC header associated with NIC should be understood by both  Transparent encapsulation Carry the packet from the VNFC as a transparent payload and must add a completely new header for transport by the infrastructure network  Address binding Mac addresses presented to the VNFC must be bound to infrastructure network addresses
  25. 25. NFV Infrastructure – Challenges in Performance  General recommendations to apply to network SW design  SW requiring high performance should be partitioned in independent modules running in different threads  Modules should have independent memory structures in order to avoid OS deadlocks  Modules should communicate each other in pipeline structures, minimising the use of the OS as an intermediate step  OS interruptions should be reduced, if possible, to zero, due to its high consumption of CPU cycles  The use of OS network stacks should be avoided  Network cards and other peripherals should communicate directly with the modules through memory
  26. 26. NFV Infrastructure – Challenges in Interconnection of VNF