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Introduction to MLA8

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  1. 1. MLA Referencing
  2. 2. What is Reference? • Referencing is the process of acknowledging the authors of sources you have consulted for your work. • It is a act of referring. Reference : • The action of mentioning or alluding to something or, • The use of a source of information in order to ascertain something.
  3. 3. Why should I include Reference? • Proves that substantial research has been done to support our analysis . • Enables others to follow up on our work . • Gives credit to other people's work . • Avoids charges of plagiarism. • Used to indicate the origin of material & source for research & further reading.
  4. 4. When to use References? • References should be given when you cite the work of other authors including: • Direct Quotes • Ideas and theories that have been published by other people • Statistics and numerical data • Figures and illustrations
  5. 5. Difference between Referencing and Citation? Citation occurs when you use a specific source in your work and then follow up with the proper bibliographic information; plagiarism issues arise when you use a specific source, but fail to indicate what you have borrowed, and/or fail to provide proper bibliographic information. A reference is the bibliographic information that guides readers to your source.”
  6. 6. Citations • A citation is when you directly refer to another author’s work in your writing • It is when you cite the work of other authors to support your own • Citations should be supported with a reference to the source of the work • References are the bibliographical information included at the end of an essay in a reference list
  7. 7. In-Text Citations • In-Text Citation refers to the works of others in your text done by using what is known as parenthetical citation( ). This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.
  8. 8. Example of In Text Citation
  9. 9. Paraphrasing • Paraphrasing is re-writing an author’s text in your own words • It should explain the author’s idea or concept in a different way • The meaning of the text should be the same but the language should be different • Any specific language or phrases used by the author should be contained within quotation marks • A paraphrase is more detailed than a summary • A reference should still be provided when paraphrasing
  10. 10. Summarizing • Summarizing involves taking the key points from another text and writing them in your own words • You can summarize you own work or the work of another author • A summary should provide an overview • A summary should be shorter than the original • If you are summarizing an idea that was published by someone else then you should include a reference
  11. 11. Referencing Systems • Harvard style of referencing. • American Psychological Association style (APA) . • Vancouver style. • MLA citation style (modern language association ). • The Chicago manual of style . • Royal society of chemistry style.
  12. 12. Modern Language Association • The Modern Language Association's writing format is a series of regulations and guidelines for writers. • It is more organized for most essay writers to use a consistent writing style for essays and citations. • In school, using an organized format also allows your teachers and fellow readers to clearly understand your essays.
  13. 13. Works Cited Page: The Basics
  14. 14. Fundamentals of MLA Citation • CORE ELEMENTS • Authors. • Title of the source. • Title of container, • Other contributors, • Version, • Numbers, • Publisher, • Publication date, • Location.
  15. 15. Basic Format : Core elements are placed in the citation, usually in this format: • Author. Title. Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location.
  16. 16. Works Cited page: Books • Basic Format of the Works Cited Page: One author • Surname, First name. Title of Book. Publisher, Year of Publication. • Example: • Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Boston: Allyn, 2000.
  17. 17. Works Cited page: Books • Basic Format of the Works Cited Page: Two or Three authors • Surname, FirstName#1, and Author FirstName#2 AuthorLastName#2. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication date. Example: • Lathrop, Ann, and Kathleen Foss. Guiding Students from Cheating and Plagiarism to Honesty and Integrity: Strategies for Change. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2005.
  18. 18. Works Cited page: Books • Basic Format of the Works Cited Page: More than Three authors • First author’s last a e, First a e a d Middle i itial [if available], et al. Italicize Title. Publishing Company, Year. • Example: • Gebhard, David, et al. A Guide to Architecture in San Francisco & Northern California. Santa Barbara: Peregrine, 1973. Print.
  19. 19. Footnotes & Endnotes • The main difference between Footnotes and Endnotes is that Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made, while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitled Endnotes or Notes.
  20. 20. Footnotes & Endnotes • Both footnotes and endnotes are used to note the following information:  Bibliographical information  Copyright permission  Explanatory information:  Supplemental (but related) information  Sources to explore a topic further  Expansion on a specific idea or thought  Background information
  21. 21. Endnote Citation Examples • 1Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1995) 230. • Second reference to a source • 2 Mandela 322. • Book: two authors • 3 Richard T. Schaefer and Robert P. Lamm, Sociology, 6th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998) • 543-544. • Book: more than two authors • 4 Gabriel A. Almond, et al., Comparative Politics Today: A World View (New York: Longman,2003) 395-398.
  22. 22. References • • • • • •

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    Jan. 15, 2021

Introduction to MLA8


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