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Amsterdam: population, migration flows and ethnic minorities policies.
URBAN SOCIOLOGY COSTANZO RANCI, CAROLINA PACCHI, MARA POPOLIZIO A.Y. 2012/13EXERCISE 2:AMSTERDAM POPULATION STUDENTS: Celeste Calzolari 779725 Mathieu Gorris 784647 Silvia Sanasi 778497 Sara Sciuccati 778099
1. OVERVIEW OF THE POPULATIONThe Netherlands is the most dense country in the world with 477 inhabitants per square kilometersof land. Amsterdam is the city with the highest number of inhabitants, namely 790,044, with adensity rate of 4,791 per square kilometers. The density of dwellings in Amsterdam is 2,401 persquare kilometer with an average of two inhabitants per dwelling. The immigration in the Netherlands is considerable, although it is unevenly distributed across the country. Relatively most of them live in the four largest cities, including Amsterdam. In fact, 50,3% of the people living in Amsterdam don’t have a Dutch origin. Amsterdam is the city with the highest amount of different nationalities in the world, namely 177. Emigration is also substantive. In fact in 2005 121,000 people left the country, while 94,000 entered it. In 2006, out of a total of 132,470 emigrants, the great majority (94,834 people) were going to Europe, Oceania, America or Japan and 37,636 to other countries. This has been different in the past.
2. MIGRATION OF NATIVE DUTCHSigniﬁcant numbers of Dutch emigrants can be found in many different countries around the world.Lots of people left the Netherlands in several waves of migration.In the period from 1614 to 1820 emigrants left the Netherlands moving to India, Indonesia, the WestIndies, Africa, South America and the New Netherlands Colony which claimed the North Americanshore from Cape Cod to Virginia. This colony lasted from 1614 to 1664 when it was taken by theEnglish in the Second Anglo-Dutch War.More than 250,000 emigrants left the Netherlands in the period from 1820 to 1940 and continuedmigrating to Indonesia, the West Indies, Africa and North America, most of them settled in Iowa,Michigan, and Wisconsin. The main reason for emigrating was, just like in the period mentionedabove, the search for new land and new opportunities. Also sounds of encouragement from relativesand friends who had gone before is seen as an important motivation in this second movement. Afterthe World War II, in the period between 1940 and 1970, many Dutch left and settled in Australia,New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Most of them had a Jewish background and aretherefore emigrated because of religioussuppression.In Amsterdam we see a similarphenomenon of migration. Especially inthe 80s, there was an importantmigration of inhabitants of Amsterdamtowards other new cities such as Almereand Purmerend. During those yearsthese cities were subjected totransformations according to agovernmental urban plan. This planpromoted suburbanization and realizednew developments in the so called"groeikernen" (cores of growth). Therefore, young professionals and artists moved intoneighborhoods such as de Pijp and the Jordaan, which were ‘abandoned’ by theseAmsterdammers. Regarding the migration of inhabitants with Dutch origins in relation with other municipalities in the Netherlands, there’s a ﬂux going outwards which stayed more or less equal since 1996. Around 30,000 people a year moving outwards, shown in the graph with the dark blue line. The immigration (light blue line) has been increasing since 2001 and is now, in 2012, exceeding the ﬂux of people moving out of the city. While focussing on the immigration of differentage categories, starting with 20-29 years, there were in 2006 15,000 people moving from an other
municipality towards Amsterdam. Thisamount is more than half of the totaldomestic ﬂux and two times the amount ofthe same people that moved out of thecity. The main reasons for this ﬂux is workand study. Regarding the age category of30-39 the amount of people moving out isgreater than the ﬂux moving in. therefore,in this category there is a decrease in theamount of population. The main reason foremigrating is the start of a family. Becauseof this, we can also conclude that there isa relation with the age category of 0-9. The reasons for immigration of foreigners nowadays is difﬁcult to deﬁne. Information about these reasons is analyzed by the IND (Immigratie en Naturalisatiedienst). In order to make a rough calculation the IND analyses signiﬁcant variables such as gender, age, civil class, year of settling in the Netherlands and country of birth. Especially for EU- citizens reasons of migration are often unknown. In 2009 only 20% of the motifs was known, and nowadays this percentage is still decreasing. The three main reasons are work, marriage and reuniting with the family.
3. IMMIGRATION FLOWS OF FOREIGNERS TO AMSTERDAM The Repatriation from IndonesiaAfter the decolonization of Indonesia, an average amount of Dutch natives and people from thesecond generation (Eurasians) had to leave the new Indonesian Republic to go back to their countryof origin. The Dutch government had some hesitation about accepting their settlement in theNetherlands but the population tried to give to their children a high level of education in the Dutchschool system, and they developed favorable economic conditions. According to this, the case wasmore seen as a repatriation instead of immigration, and these immigrants integrated well into thesociety. The Labourers from Mediterranean CountriesDuring the 60‘s, the Dutch government signed agreements with several Mediterranean countriesrecruiting labourers for industry and mining sectors. Because of the disbelief the country had tomigration ﬂows, they drawn up the Buitenlandse Arbeiders of 1970, which stated that theNetherlands is not a migration country and it will never become in the future. Even when the Turkishand Moroccan families of the labourers began settling, the government kept neglecting this reality ofimmigration and increasingly permanent settling. Their children received an education in their ownlanguage and culture, supposed to go back to their country of origin one day, and the educationaltask was given to special teachers especially brought to the Netherlands from those countries. The Surinamese ImmigrationThe population of Suriname was made of African slaves, soon melted to the Europeans who moved.The kids received Dutch education, so richest families sent them to the Netherlands to complete theireducation, and most of them never went back to Suriname. During WWII the ﬂow interrupted but,thanks to the fast recovering of the Netherlands and the 1954 Statuut1, it started again during the50s, generating chain migration later on. Consequently, also lower-skilled Surinamese started tomigrate.The independence of Suriname and the end of the Statuut came in 1975 with the new leftwingDutch cabinet, but a visa regulation for Surinamese emigration only came in 1980. These 5 years ofgap signed a massive immigration, the “beat the ban rush” phenomenon: people wanted to migrateas quick as possible. In 1966 13,000 Surinamese lived in the Netherlands. In 1972 the immigrationgot a high increase and it reached 51,000. In 1975 110,000 Surinamese were living in the countryand in 1980 they became 145,000. A huge migration rate compared to the total population ofSuriname of 385,000 in the beginning of the 70s.A urgent housing problem emerged: a settlement program was stated and municipalities had to takein a number of Surinamese families. In Amsterdam, the Bijlmer, intended to house the Dutch workingclasses and remained empty because of the questionable design taste used, became an enclave ofnewly arrived Surinamese. High unemployment rates were soon replaced, in the second generation,with an average educational level and a integrated residential pattern, even if they still took part intothe suburbanization process of Amsterdam.The return rate of the Surinamese to their mother-country had never been higher than 3%, and a bignumber of returnees had migrated back to the Netherlands again.1Het Statuut door het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden of 1954, constitutional law regulating the Dutch West Indies economy andstipulating that there was only one citizenship in the whole kingdom, letting the citizens travel without restrictions.
4. DISTRIBUTION OF ETHNICITIES IN THE URBAN AREA In this paragraph we are analyzing the composition of the population by ethnic origin of each areas of Amsterdam, and their property value. Amsterdam is divided in eight main districts. Amsterdam DistrictsAmsterdam CentrumAmsterdam city center is inhabited by almost 82,000 people at is one of the most dense areas ofthe city. Among all districts, it has one of the highest number of dwellings (47,030 ). In this district 63% of the inhabitants are autochthonous. The city center is the district with most western foreigners(23%).The value of houses is one of the highest, after Oud-Zuid. On average, houses in Centrum have only2.5 rooms which is the lowest number of all districts.Amsterdam WestThis area is composed by 3 main neighborhoods: Oud-West, De Baarsjes and Bos en Lommer.The Oud-West is a district that was largely built before the WWII nearby the the city centre. Over31,000 people live in this district. Among these, over 60% are autochthonous, 19% are westernexpats or foreigners. The average number of rooms in Oud-West is quite low (2.8).De Baarsjes is situated just within de center ring road on the west of the city. There are 34,000inhabitants, many foreigners, half of them are non-western foreigners, especially form Suriname, and14 % are western foreigners. De Baarsjes contains almost 19,000 houses of in average 3 rooms.The value of property is in line with Amsterdam’s average.Bos en Lommer is situated on the west side of the city just inside the center ring road. Over 30,000people live in this district. Only 7 % of them are over 65 years of age. Also here the percentage offoreigners is quite high: 56% are non- western foreigners while 10% are western foreigners. With alittle under 15,000 homes, Bos en Lommer has least homes of all Amsterdam districts (afterWestpoort). It is also one of the district where homes are valued lower.Amsterdam Nieuw WestThe main districts of this area are Geuzenenveld-Slotermeer, Slotervaart and Osdorp.Geuzenenveld-Slotermeer is situated just outside the center ring road in the west of thecity. More than 41,000 inhabitants live in this district.The percentage of foreigners in Geuzenenveld-Slotermeer is 65%, but only 9% of all inhabitants are western foreigners.According to the average, property value in Geuzenveld-Slotermeer is considerably low.
Slotervaart has 45,000 inhabitants. Most of them are under 50 years of age. 50% are social renthouses, while 26.2% of all housing are owner-occupied property. With this percentage Slotervaart isthe district with most owner- occupied houses after Osdorp, and the property value s lower thatAmsterdam average.Osdorp district is quite far from the city center, differently from the previous two. Over 45,000inhabitants live in Osdorp.16% of them is over 65 years of age which is a quite high percentagecompared to other Amsterdam districts. Half of the inhabitants are Dutch and 10% are expats orwestern foreigners.Osdorp is the district with the highest percentage owner- occupied houses (32%), the property valueis in line with the average one.Amsterdam ZuidZuid is situated south of the city centre. This district has over 83,000 inhabitants. Over 60% of themare Dutch people while 20% are western foreigners, which is fairly high. Furthermore, people of 25 to39 years old are slightly more represented than other age ranges, only 10% of the inhabitants is olderthan 65 years of age. Zuid is the area that has the highest number of dwellings, almost 48,000. Thevalue of the houses is the highest in all Amsterdam district.Amsterdam OostThe main districts of Amsterdam Oost are Oost- Watergraafsmeer, ZuiderAmstel and Zeeburg.Oost-Watergraafsmeer is situated south-east of the city center within the center ring road. Almost59,000 inhabitants live in here, 45% of them are foreigners, many of them are western foreigners andexpats.Almost 30,000 houses are located in Oost- Watergraafsmeer, 18.2% of them are owner-occupiedhouses and their value is higher than the average.ZuiderAmstel is a district situated on the south border of Amsterdam. There are 47,000inhabitants, 40 % of them is above 50 years of age and 21 % is over 65 years of age, which is thehighest percentage of inhabitants over 65. There is also a large number of expats or westernforeigners. Inhabitants are spread over 28,000 households.Most of the households are single person households (almost 58%). 23.4 % of all houses inZuiderAmstel is owner- occupied and the average value is one of the highest. ZuiderAmstel is apopular district because of its good location and the nice property. Zeeburg is partially built in the IJriver and it’s is a quite new and attractive district. Almost 44,000 inhabitants live in Zeeburg, spread in20,000 houses. Only 6% are people over 65 years of age, which is the lowest percentage inAmsterdam. Approximately 40 % are nonwestern foreigners. 12 % are western foreigners. Zeeburg isstill expanding at a quick pace: in 10 years from now the estimated number of inhabitants will be90,000.Amsterdam ZuidoostZuidoost is seperated from Amsterdams other districts by two villages, Ouder-Amstel and Diemen. Itcounts about 79,000 inhabitants spread over three areas. Most of them live in Bijlmer (58%) followedby Gaasperdam (40%) and Driemond (2%). The inhabitants are usually quite young. Zuidoost is alsoknown because of the large amount of national backgrounds. There are about 130 different nationalbackgrounds and the most representative one is Surinam. Western foreigners constitute only 8 % ofthe inhabitants.The houses in this disctrict are about 38,000 homes. There is a variety of buildigns: a lot of cheaphomes can be found, as well as luxurious apartments and blocks of ﬂats.Amsterdam NoordDistrict Noord is separated from other Amsterdam districts by het IJ , a large river just behind CentralStation. With almost 88,000 inhabitants, Noord is the most populated. The lowest percentage of
western foreigners live in Noord (9%). Almost 40,000 houses are located in here, 18.3% of them areowner-occupied.Amsterdam WestportWestpoort is an expanding harbour and industrial area, there are about 1500 companies. Thisdistrict is under control by the municipality. About 40,000 people work in Westpoort but only 100homes are situated here. As a consequence they are the largest of the city with 4.2 rooms. Only 9%of them is private property. They are occupied for 70 % by autochthonous, 21% are westernforeigners, which is the highest percentage of western foreigners in the city. Distribution of ethnicities over the yearsThe following maps are showing the percentage of foreigners settled in Amsterdam respectively in1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2012.It is possible to notice an increasing of immigration ﬂows during the years. In particular immigrantssettled in some areas, where land prices were cheaper and where it was possible to ﬁnd more jobopportunities. The areas with the highest percentage of immigrants are the south-western one,where the main industries are located and the very south-east part, especially Bijlmer, where lowprice housing was created; because these new buildings were not accepted by the municipalitysocial housing was created there and it was possible for immigrants to afford buying appartments inthat area. In recent years they also started to settle in the northen area, where cheap housing fromthe 60s were located.
Property values and attractiveness of residential areasMinimum income households perneighbourhood, compared to themunicipal average (17,9%) and relatedattractiveness of residential areas. Characteristics of the residential environment explaining the land value situation.
5. IMMIGRATION POLICIES, EDUCATION AND PARTICIPATION Immigration PoliciesThe ﬁrst note about inequalities in Amsterdam dates back to 1985, the “Anti-racism policy”, statingthe equality of all individuals in the city .In 1989, The City of Amsterdam formulated an ofﬁcialminorities policies, the “Raamnota Gemeentelijk Minderhedenbeleid”, following on a second draft wasformulated in 1999 “De kracht van een diverse stad”. The 2 main aims of this policy are theabolishment of the arrears position of immigrants by increasing the accessibility to goods andservices and by ﬁghting discrimination and racism. In neighborhood-oriented projects, migrantinhabitants will have to be more involved in the decision-making process and councils. Anotherimportant point is the creation of Advisory Council Minorities, councils able to advise the AmsterdamMayor and Aldermen about problematics concerning policies in general, especially about migrants.Co-operation between different organizations is really important for the outcome of projects andinitiatives on policy ﬁelds. With the memorial-draft “De kracht van een diverse stad” (The force of adiverse city) of 1999, minorities are not treated as a whole anymore, but differentiated into sub-groups called “diversities”, because of the needs of each one of them, considered an enrichment tothe city’s society.The districts themselves are let free to take decisions about certain ﬁelds of the diversity policy,because of the different needs of policy requested by each district. Where the number of migrants ishigh, it’s possible to notice a low rate of social cohesion, increasing poverty and criminality. Theobjectives of these policies are mainly integration and social participation. Welfare is an important ﬁeldwithin policies. It concerns social-cultural and recreational activities as well as educational activities.Another important ﬁeld is livability, aiming to make inhabitants more responsible for their neighborhoodand creating a greater feeling of safety. The last important ﬁeld about policy are the information andcommunication services, in order to keep the participation and inform citizens about projects andinitiatives. Unfortunately, in the districts’ policies, the explicit aim of Amsterdam’s Council to opposeracism and discrimination is not mentioned anymore and it’s not implemented by means of practicalsolutions. Economic ParticipationUntil the 60s most of the people belonging to an ethic minority were hired to carry out unskilled andlow-paid jobs in dutch industries. For this reason unemployment rate between immigrants was low.Unemployment started to become a problem after the ﬁrst economic stagnation of the 70s, whenmany industries were closed or reduced the number of workers. When economy began to recoverethnic minorities could not proﬁt from the new growth because they lacked skills and professionaleducation. Even poorer opportunities came from the emerging service economy. Another relevantfact is that the long term unemployment rate was very high compared to the one of Dutch people. Inthe 80s the unemployment rate among immigrants was still three times higher than the one for nativeDutch people and it was in particular low among Turks and Moroccans. One of the reason for this isthat immigrants don’t have many contacts with native people. In reaction to their low opportunities inlabour market, ethnic minorities often started their own small ﬁrms, mainly based on familyorganization and the labour force of their community. The number of ﬁrms owned by ethnic minoritieshas increased strongly in the last years. In 1994 the Dutch government tried to ﬁnd a solution for thissituation, enacting a law which forced employers to record annually how many foreign workers areemployed in their ﬁrm.
EducationEducation level of ethnic minorities is in general very low, compared to Dutch people and they aredrastically unrepresented in high educational levels. Moreover second generation immigrants, whichhave surely more possibilities of having a good education, very rarely conclude their studies. It is alsopossible to notice a concentration of immigrants in speciﬁc schools, whose standards are often lowerthan the ones of schools attended by natives. In later years the number of “immigrant schools” isincreasing. The real difference is evident when it comes to secondary education and to universities.Three are the main reasons for the disadvantages of ethnic minorities with respect to education: ﬁrst,immigrant children often arrive to Amsterdam at school age and this creates differences in educationlevels with their native classmates, also because of their scarce knowledge of Dutch language. Thesecond reason is socio-economic: immigrants, especially Turks and Moroccans, who arrived inAmsterdam had a low education and often a low education level of parents is correlated to a poorperformance of children in this ﬁeld. The last factor is that sometimes ethnic groups’ ideas differs forthe ones taught in schools and for this reason some of them prefer to continue their childreneducation at home. The municipality of Amsterdam realized some projects to strengthen theconnection between school and home, to improve their knowledge of Dutch language and todevelop mathematical skills were carried out. Moreover Dutch government stated that newimmigrants have to study Dutch language and occupational studies. Political ParticipationOne of the main differences between the Netherlands and the other european countries is thatDutch government permits both direct and indirect participation of ethnic minorities in politicaldecisions. A special policy was created in 1983 to assure to ethnic minorities political representationat all levels. Immigrants can also participate to local elections, as long as they have a residencepermit and had been living in the Netherlands for al least ﬁve years, but they can not vote in ProvincialStates and Parliament elections. However the number of voters coming from ethnic minorities hasalways been lower than the one of natives, in particular the number of voters change according totheir ethnic group. The amount of voters is high between Turks and Moroccans, while Surinameseand Antilleans vote less frequently.
6. BIBLIOGRAPHY- Minorities Policy in the city of Amsterdam and the Amsterdam districts; Rick Wolff; presented at the Multicultural Policies and Modes of Citizenship (MPMC), workshop in Liege, Belgium, 1999.- Imagining Global Amsterdam: History, Culture, and Geography in a World City, Edited by Marco de Waard, Amsterdam University Press- Ethnic Amsterdam: Immigrants and Urban Change in the Twentieth Century, Edited by Liza Nell &Jan Rath, Amsterdam University Press- City Template Amsterdam; Karen Kraal and Aslan Zorlu.- Migration of the four largest cities in the Netherlands; Mila van Huis, Han Nicolaas and MichelCroes.- Ethnic Amsterdam: Immigrants and Urban Change in the Twentieth Century; Liza Nell and Jan Rath.- IMI Working Papers Series 2011, N. 47- Gemeente Amsterdam, 2011 yearbook.- http://amsterdam.feiten.info- http://www.cbs.nl- De Staat van de Stad VI Amsterdam, Bevolking, woningmarkt en woonmilie