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attitude,components,functions,theories,work attitude..
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  1. 1. !<br />ATTITUDE<br />IS<br />EVERY THING<br />
  2. 2. The Iceberg<br /> How much do you see of an iceberg??? <br />
  4. 4. The Iceberg<br />The Iceberg phenomena is also applicable on human beings … <br />
  5. 5. The Iceberg<br />KNOWLEDGE<br />&<br />SKILLS<br />KNOWN <br />TO OTHERS<br />SEA LEVEL<br />UNKNOWN <br />TO OTHERS<br />ATTITUDE<br />
  6. 6. Concept<br />An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degree of like or dislike for an item.<br /> Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event this is often referred to as the attitude object.<br />
  7. 7. Four Possible Reactions to Attitude Objects<br />
  8. 8. Positive attitude:<br /> The predisposition that results in desirable outcomes for individuals and organizations.<br />Negative attitude:<br /> The tendency of a person that result in an undesirable outcome for individuals and organizations.<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Components of Attitudes: Tripartite View<br />Cognitive<br />Attitude<br />Affective<br />Behavioral<br />
  10. 10. Components of Attitudes<br />COGNITIVE<br />Opinion or beliefs about attitude object (pos & neg)<br />AFFECTIVE<br />emotions and feelings the object triggers (pos & neg)<br />BEHAVIORAL<br />reaction toward the object (pos & neg actions)<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Attitude Object: EMPLOYEE<br />COGNITIONS<br />My pay is low.<br />My supervisor is unfair.<br />AFFECTS<br />I am angry over how little I’m paid.<br />I dislike my supervisor.<br />BEHAVIORS<br />I am going to look for another job that <br />pays better.<br />I am looking for another job.<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Functions of Attitude<br />INSTRUMENTAL<br />A T T I T U D E<br />KNOWLEGE<br />EGO DEFENCE<br />VALUE EXPRESSION<br />
  13. 13. Functions of Attitudes<br /><ul><li>Value-Expressive function
  14. 14. enable us to express who we are and what we believe in
  15. 15. Ego-defensive function
  16. 16. enable us to project internally-held conflicts onto others means protecting self-esteem (e.g., homophobia)
  17. 17. Knowledge function
  18. 18. enable us to know the world
  19. 19. Utilitarian/Instrumental Function
  20. 20. Enable us to gain rewards and avoid punishment</li></li></ul><li>Theories of attitude change<br />Cognitive Dissonance Theory<br />Self Perception Theory<br />
  21. 21. Attitudes, Behavior & Consistency<br /><ul><li>People try maintain consistency between their different attitudes.
  22. 22. People try maintain consistency between attitudes and behavior.
  23. 23. Altering their attitudes or behavior, developing a rationalization for their discrepancy.</li></ul>15<br />
  24. 24. Cognitive Dissonance Theory<br /><ul><li>If there is an inconsistency between two attitudes or between attitudes and behavior
  25. 25. People seek to make them consistent
  26. 26. Achieve a stable state with minimum of dissonance</li></ul>16<br />
  27. 27. Cognitive Dissonance Theory<br />Desire to reduce dissonance depends on <br /><ul><li>importance of elements creating the dissonance
  28. 28. degree of influence over the elements
  29. 29. rewards involved in the dissonance</li></ul>17<br />
  30. 30. Self-PerceptionTheory<br /><ul><li>Attitudes do not cause behavior, behavior causes attitudes
  31. 31. Attitudes are formed after the fact to make sense out of behavior that already occurred</li></ul>18<br />
  32. 32. Do Attitudes cause Behavior?<br />Answer: Not very well! <br />Attitudes have a stronger affect on behavior if they are <br /><ul><li>important
  33. 33. specific
  34. 34. accessible
  35. 35. social pressure reinforces the attitude
  36. 36. you have experience with the attitude.</li></ul>19<br />
  37. 37. Attitude & Behavior <br />BEHAVIOR<br />KNOWN <br />TO OTHERS<br />SEA LEVEL<br />UNKNOWN <br />TO OTHERS<br />IMPACT<br />VALUES – STANDARDS – JUDGMENTS<br />ATTITUDE<br />MOTIVES – ETHICS - BELIEFS<br />
  38. 38. <ul><li>Why Might Attitudes Matter at Work?
  39. 39. Because attitudes to work and/or employing organisation might affect:
  40. 40. Whether a person seeks a new job
  41. 41. How co-operative they are with others at work
  42. 42. Whether they present a positive image of the organisation to clients or customers
  43. 43. How they react to change
  44. 44. How hard they work (motivation)
  45. 45. Their psychological or physical health</li></ul>21<br />
  46. 46.
  47. 47. Personality<br />The enduring ways a person has of feeling, thinking and behaving<br />Work situation<br />The work itself Co-workers, supervisors and subordinates Physical working conditions Working hours, pay and job security<br />Values<br />Intrinsic work values<br />Extrinsic work values<br />Attitudes to work<br />The collection of feelings, beliefs and predispositions to behave in one’s job or organisation<br />Social influence<br />Co-workers Groups Culture<br />Determinants of Work attitudes<br />23<br />
  48. 48. TYPES OF ATTITUDES<br />There are many types of attitudes. But here we limit to only to the work related issues.<br />The job related attitudes are classified as :<br />a) Job involvement<br /> b) Organizational Commitment<br /> c)Job Satisfaction.<br />
  49. 49. a) Job involvement<br />Measures the degree to which a person identifies himself psychologically with his job and considers his perceived performance level important to self worth.<br />Performance of the employees is directly related to the amount of job involvement.<br />
  50. 50. b) Organizational Commitment<br />It’s a state in which an employee identifies himself with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.<br />It depicts the level of attachment of the individual towards the organization.<br />
  51. 51. c) Job Satisfaction.<br />This is the individual’s attitude towards one’s job.<br />The level of the satisfaction differs from one job to another and also from one individual to other.<br />
  52. 52. Conclusions<br /><ul><li>Attitudes do not predict single behaviours
  53. 53. Attitudes are related to multiple behaviours (behavioural patterns)
  54. 54. Attitudes influence behaviour through influencing intention
  55. 55. Intention is the better predictor of behaviour
  56. 56. In order to understand intentions and behaviours, need to know about beliefs and attitudes
  57. 57. This is essential in relation to attitude change</li></li></ul><li>The Choice is YOURS<br /><ul><li>With a Bad attitude </li></ul> you can never have a positive day<br /><ul><li>With a Positive attitude </li></ul>you can never have a bad day<br />
  58. 58. How can we develop our personality and attitude ?<br />We can do this through :<br /><ul><li>Self image and self reformation
  59. 59. Education and hard work
  60. 60. Discipline and organization
  61. 61. Belief in goodness's and truth and many more.</li></li></ul><li>
  62. 62. The Final Words<br />“Things are the way you think they are, because you think they are that way.”<br />
  63. 63. Thank You<br />