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DATA COLLECTION methods- GS.pptx

  1. Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  2. Data collection is a systematic approach to gather information from a variety of sources to get a complete and accurate picture of an area of interest. Data collection Methods Primary Data Collection Methods Secondary Data Collection Methods Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  3. Primary Data Collection Methods  The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character.  These are also called first hand information.  It is original, problem or project specific, and collected for serving a particular purpose. Its authenticity or relevance is reasonably high.  Different primary data collection methods are:  Questionnaire  Schedule  Interview Method  Observation Method Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  4. Merits and Demerits of Primary data collection method: Merits:  Targeted issues are addressed  Data interpretation is better  Latest data is collected  Greater Control (over type of respondants) Demerits:  High cost  Time consuming  Inaccurate feedback  More number of resources are required Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  5. Questionnaire A questionnaire is a written list of questions which are answered by a number of people in order to provide information for a report survey. Features of a good questionnaire:  Questions should be simple and clear, not vague  Write an introduction to the questionnaire  Order of the questions should be in logical sequence  Delicate questions should be kept at last  Design for easy tabulation  Design to achieve objectives  Questions should not of repetitive nature  Too long questions should be avoided Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  6. Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  7. Types of Questionnaire Open ended questionnaire Close ended questionnaire Mixed questionnaire Pictorial questionnaire Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  8. Open Ended Questionnaire  Respondent is free to express his views and the ideas.  Used in making intensive studies of the limited number of the cases.  Merely an issue is raised by such a questionnaire.  Do not provide any structure for the respondent’s reply.  The questions and their orders are pre – determined in the nature. Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  9. Closed ended questionnaire  Responses are limited to the stated alternatives.  One of the alternatives is simply YES or NO, agree or disagree, satisfied or not satisfied, like or dislike etc.  Respondent cannot express his own judgment. Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  10. Mixed Questionnaire  Questions are both close and open ended.  Used in field of social research. Pictorial questionnaire  Used very rarely.  Pictures are used to promote the interest in answering the questions.  Used in studies related to the social attitudes and for the children. Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  11. Schedule  Schedule is the tool or instrument used to collect data from the respondents while interview is conducted.  Schedule contains questions, statements and blank spaces/tables for filling up the respondents.  The schedule is presented by the interviewer. The questions are asked and the answers are noted down by him.  The list of questions is a more formal document, it need not be attractive.  The schedule can be used in a very narrow sphere of social research. Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  12. Types of Schedule  Rating Schedules is a schedule used to obtain opinions, preferences etc, of respondents over statements on the phenomenon studied. The schedule consists of positive and negative statements of opinion on the phenomenon. It include the questions with answers like agree/disagree, like dislike etc.  Observation Schedule: This is a form on which observations of an object or a phenomenon are recorded. The items to be observed are determined with reference to the nature and objectives of the study. They are grouped into appropriate categories and listed in the schedule in the order in which the observer would observe them.  Interview schedule: The researcher along with schedules, go to respondents, put to them the questions from the Performa in the order the questions are listed and record the replies in the space meant for the same in the Performa. Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  13. Difference between questionnaire and schedule  The questionnaire is generally sent through mail to informants to be answered as specified in a covering letter, but otherwise without further assistance from the sender. The schedule is generally filled out by the research worker or the enumerator, who can interpret questions when necessary.  Questionnaire is relatively cheap and economical since we have to spend money only in preparing the questionnaire and in mailing the same to respondents. Here no field staff required. To collect data through schedules is relatively more expensive since considerable amount of money has to be spent in appointing enumerators and in importing training to them. Money is also spent in preparing schedules.  Non-response is usually high in questionnaire as compared to schedule  Identity of the respondent is not very clear in questionnaire while it is clear in schedule.  The questionnaire is slow as compared to schedule since many people do not reply even after sending many reminders.  No personal contact in case of questionnaire while there is personal contact in case of schedule  Questionnaire method can be used only when the respondent is literate and have knowledge about the area of research while in case of schedule even illiterate people can be a part of sample  Wider area of sample can be taken in case of questionnaire while schedule method can cover only narrow area.  Risk of collecting incomplete and wrong information is more in case of questionnaire as compared to schedule method. Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  14. Interview Method Interview is the verbal conversation between two people with the objective of collecting relevant information for the purpose of research. Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  15. Types of Interview  Structured Interview/ Closed Interview: In structured interview, Researcher asks the question in a fixed sequence or structure. He ask only the set of questions being prepared in advance before going for interview.  Unstructured Interview/ Open Interview: It is an interview in which questions are not prearranged. It allow questions based on the respondants response and proceeds like a friendly conversation. However, because each respondant is asked a different series of questions, this style lack the reliability and precision as in structure interview.  Semi-Structured Interview: A semi-structured interview is open, allowing new ideas to be brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee says. A certain parameters are pre fixed before conducting the interview but the researcher has the liberty to make changes in the same. A semi-structured interview is a qualitative method of inquiry that combines a pre-determined set of open questions with the opportunity for the interviewer to explore particular themes or responses further. A semi-structured interview does not limit respondents to a set of pre-determined answers  Interview method can also be classified on the basis of number of respondents i.e. Individual interview and Group Interview Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  16. Observation Method Researchers use all of their senses to examine people in natural settings or naturally occurring situations. Example: Watching the life of street-children provides a detailed description of their social life. OBSERVATION involves looking and listening very carefully. We all watch other people sometimes, but we don't usually watch them in order to discover particular information about their behavior. This is what observation in social science involves. – By Langley, P The following are the characteristics of observation :  Behaviour is observed in natural surroundings.  It enables understanding significant events affecting social relations of the participants.  It determines reality from the viewpoint of the observed person/Researcher.  It avoids manipulations in the independent variables.  Recording of data is not selective. Prepared by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  17. Types of Observation  Classification on the basis of control  Controlled/ Systematic observation: When the observation is pre-planned and definite, it is called controlled observation.  Uncontrolled/ Unsystematic observation: It takes place in natural setting without the influence of external or outside control  Classification on the basis of observer’s role  Participant Observation: Participant observation "combines participation in the lives of the people being studied with maintenance of a professional distance that allows adequate observation and recording of data" – By Fetterman, 1998,  Non- Participant Observation: Non-participant observation is observation with limited interaction with the people one observes. This data collection approach results in a detailed recording of the communication and provides the researcher with access to the contours of talk as well as body behavior (e.g. facial expression, eye gaze). Even a great observer cannot record these aspects in detail. Observing by video or audio recording Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  18. Secondary Data Collection Secondary data means data that are already available i.e., they refer to the data which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. Characteristics of Secondary Data:  It is a summary of a book or a set of records.  Collection of Secondary data is less time consuming.  It provides a larger database of information.  The data can not be personally checked and verified.  In some cases that data is not reliable. Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu
  19. Types of Secondary Data:  PUBLISHED DATA:  various publications of the central, state are local governments  various publications of foreign governments or of international bodies and their subsidiary organisations.  technical and trade journals  books, magazines and newspapers  reports and publications of various associations connected with business and industry, banks, stock exchanges, etc.  reports prepared by research scholars, universities, economists, etc. in different fields  public records and statistics, historical documents, and other sources of published information.  UNPUBLISHED DATA:  they may be found in diaries, letters, unpublished biographies and autobiographies  available with scholars and research workers, trade associations, labour bureaus and other public/ private individuals and organisations. Made by Dr. Gurinder Sandhu