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SIEMBRA DIRECTA Y SUELOS




         Ing. Agr. José Luis Panigatti, PhD
SUELOS


función (material original, clima,
         relieve, organismos, tiempo)
Ecoregiones
» suelo


          Argiudol típico
Natralbol típico
Pampa Llana Santafesina
Cambios en
las Isoyetas




 Fuente: SMN
l      i
 u      u
 d      d


Siembra directa
 o
 l
        o
        l
Soja /maiz en SD
Superficie sembrada (ha)

19
   70




                          500000
                                   1000000
                                                 1500000
                                                                  2000000
                                                                                   2500000
                                                                                                3000000
                                                                                                           3500000
                                                                                                                     4000000




                      0
19 /71
   72
19 /73
   74
19 /75
   76
19 /77
   78
19 /79
   80
19 /81
   82
19 /83
   84
19 /85
   86
19 /87
   88
                                                                                                                               Sup.Sembr.




19 /89
   90
     /
19 91
   92
19 /93
   94
19 /95
   96
                                                                                                                               Rendim.




19 /97
   98
     /
20 99
   00
20 /01
                                                                                                                                            Evolución de la Soja en Santa Fe




   02
20 /03
   04
20 /05
   06
     /0
       7
                      0
                            500
                                        1000
                                                           1500
                                                                            2000
                                                                                             2500
                                                                                                          3000
                                                                                                                     3500




                                               Rendimiento (kg/ha)
  Campañas agrícola
Otros factores que contribuyeron a la
               agriculturización

•   Cambios en la tenencia de la tierra
•   Precios de los granos
•   Falta de políticas
•   Nuevos sistemas de administración
•   Incremento de contratistas
•   Pool de siembra
•   Riego
Economía del Agua
Alfalfa en siembra directa
Erosión cuenca del Río Salado
Siembra directa y
  conservación
Pérdida de biodiversidad
Mecanización y monocultivo
Siembra Directa Y Suelos
Erosión en banquina
Soja en suelos alcalinos
Agricultura y biodiversidad
Factor “R” decádico, INTA Paraná
                 Factor "R" Decádico

1000
 900
 800
 700
 600
 500
 400
 300
 200
 100
   0
       1954/63          1974/83        1994/2003
Monte, agricultura, erosión y CC
Producción sustenta…
Lote erosionado y cultivado
Tapando los surcos
Evolución de erosión
EN ARGENTINA (millones de ha)


     Año         Total     Eólica Hídrica    Grado      Grado
                                            moderado severo-grave
   1956 (1)      34,2      16,0    18,2       27,1        7,1
   1986 (2)      46,4      21,4    25,0       22,4       24,0
   1990 (1)      58,0      28,0    30,0       27,0       31,0
  (1) INTA (2) PROSA-FECIC

Distrito Chilcas E. Ríos (ha)

 Grado               1965          1993        Variación
 Leve                3.123         1.009        - 67,7
 Moderada           10.324         9.228        - 10,6
 Severa              5.402         8.612          59,4
Romero y Brizuela (1999)
Erosión en el monte
Actividad biológica
A de suelo virgen
A de suelo con monocultivo
Incorporación de MO
Raíces en Hapludol
Actividad biológica en Hapludol
Caña de azúcar en suelos
      vertisólicos
Desafios
• Erosión
• Propiedades físicas
       • Compactación
       • Amasado
•   Economía del agua
•   Actividad biológica
•   Fertilidad
•   Economía
•   Planificación uso del territorio
•   Biodiversidad
Costra y compactación
Compactación y amasado
Gracias gringo!

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Siembra Directa Y Suelos