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Communication Response Models

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Communication Response Models

  1. 1. 3Communication Response Models
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives• To understand the basic elements of the communication process and the role of communication in marketing.• To examine various communication response models.• To analyze the response processes of receivers of marketing communications, including alternative response hierarchies and their implications for promotional planning and strategy.• To examine the nature of consumers’ cognitive processing of marketing communications.• To summarize an integrative communication response model from a theoretical and managerial perspective. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  3. 3. The Communications Process © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  4. 4. Source• Sender or source of communication is the person or organization that has information to share.• A source can be: – An individual – A nonpersonal entity © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  5. 5. Message• Contains the information or meaning the source hopes to convey. – Verbal or nonverbal – Written, oral, or symbolic• Developed as a result of the encoding process. – Encoding involves putting thoughts, ideas, or information into symbolic form. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  6. 6. There are many forms of encoding Encoding Verbal Graphic Musical Animation• Spoken • Pictures • Arrange- • Action/ Word ment Motion • Drawings• Written • Instrum- • Pace/ Word • Charts entation Speed• Song • Voices • Shape/ Lyrics Form © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  7. 7. Semiotics• The study of the nature of meaning, asking how our reality – words, gestures, myths, signs, symbols, products/services, theories – acquire meaning.• Advertising and marketing researchers are interested in semiotics to better understand the symbolic meaning which might be conveyed in a communication. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  8. 8. The Semiotic PerspectiveThree Components to every marketing message Object Brand such as Marlboro Sign or symbol Interpretant/ representing intended meaning intended (masculine,rugged meaning individualistic) (Cowboy) © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  9. 9. What is the symbolic meaning of the Snugglebear? © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  10. 10. Images encoded in pictures powerfullyconvey emotions © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  11. 11. Channel• The method by which the communication travels from the source or sender to the receiver. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  12. 12. Channels of Communication Personal Selling Personal Channels Word of Mouth Print Media Nonpersonal ChannelsBroadcast Media © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  13. 13. Receiver• The person or people with whom the sender shares thoughts or information.• Generally consumers in the target market or audience. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  14. 14. Levels of Audience AggregationFigure 3-2 © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  15. 15. Marketing to Different Audience Groups Mass Markets  Mass Communication Market Segments  Variety of relevant media Niche Markets  Personal selling or highly targeted media Small Groups  One message and medium Individuals  Personal selling © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  16. 16. Decoding• Transforming the sender’s message back into thought.• Heavily influenced by receiver’s frame of reference or field of experience.• Effective communication more likely when parties share some common ground. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  17. 17. Noise• Unplanned distortion or interference.• Examples include: – Errors or problems during message’s encoding – Distortion in radio or television signal – Distractions at the point of reception © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  18. 18. Response vs. FeedbackResponse• Receiver’s set of reactions after seeing, hearing, or reading the message.• Feedback is the part of the response communicated back to the sender. – Closes the loop in the communications flow and lets sender monitor how encoded message is being decoded and received. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  19. 19. Models of the Response Process © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  20. 20. 1. AIDA Model• Developed to represent the stages through which a salesperson must take a customer in the personal selling process.• Buyer is depicted as passing through Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action stages. – Action stage involves closing the sale, which is the most difficult stage, but most important to the marketer. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  21. 21. 2. Hierarchy of Effects Model• Paradigm for setting and measuring advertising objectives.• Shows the process by which advertising works, and that advertising’s effects occur over a period of time.• Consumer passes through a series of steps in sequential order, from initial awareness of product or service to actual purchase. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  22. 22. 3. Innovation Adoption Model• Represents the stages a consumer passes through in adopting a new product or service.• Potential adopters must be moved through a series of steps before deciding to adopt a new product. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  23. 23. 4. Information Processing Model• Assumes that the receiver in a persuasive communication situation is an information processor or problem solver.• Steps of being persuaded constitute a response hierarchy.• Steps are similar to the Hierarchy of Effects sequence. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  24. 24. Traditional Hierarchy Models are useful because:• They outline the series of steps potential purchasers must take to move from unawareness of a product or service to readiness to purchase.• Potential buyers can be identified as present at different stages in the hierarchy.• Advertiser can identify different communication problems based on each stage of the hierarchy.• They can be used as intermediate measures of communication effectiveness to guide future communication decisions. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  25. 25. Alternative Response Hierarchies Topical Involvement High Low Learning Model Low Involvement Model Perceived product High Cognitive differentiation Cognitive Affective Conative Dissonance/ Conative Attribution Model Low Conative Affective Affective Cognitive © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  26. 26. Computers are high-involvement, highlydifferentiated products. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  27. 27. Clever ads encourage low involvementlearning © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  28. 28. Alternative Response HierarchiesFigure 3-5 © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  29. 29. Implications of Alternative Response Models Analyze: • Communication situation for their product or service •Involvement levels and product/service differentiation •Consumers’ use of information sources and levels of experience with product or service Likely response sequence IMC program © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  30. 30. The Cognitive Response ApproachFigure 3-7 © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  31. 31. Cognitive Response Categories Product/Message ThoughtsCounter Arguments Support Arguments Source-Oriented ThoughtsSource Derogation Source Bolstering Ad–Execution Thoughts Thoughts About Affect Attitude the Ad Itself Toward the Ad © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  32. 32. Product/Message Thoughts Product/Message ThoughtsCounter Arguments Support Arguments•Recipient thoughts •Recipient thoughtsopposing message of affirming message ofad. ad. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  33. 33. Source-Oriented Thoughts Source-Oriented Thoughts Source Derogation Source Bolstering•Negative thoughts •Positive reactionsabout spokesperson to spokesperson oror organization organization makingmaking the claims. the claims. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  34. 34. Ad-Execution Thoughts Ad-Execution Thoughts Thoughts About Affect Attitude the Ad Itself Toward the Ad•? •? © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  35. 35. Elaboration Likelihood ModelFocuses on the way consumers respond to persuasivemessages based on the amount and nature ofelaboration or processing of information Routes to attitude changeCentral route to Peripheral routepersuasion to persuasion•High ability and •Low ability andmotivation to motivation toprocess a message process a message•Close attention is •Receiver focusespaid to message more on peripheralcontent cues rather than message content © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  36. 36. Celebrity endorsers can be peripheral cues © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  37. 37. Implications of the ELM• Level of involvement of consumers in target audience: – HIGH  an ad or sales presentation should contain strong arguments that are difficult for the recipient to refute or counterargue. – LOW  peripheral cues may be more important than detailed message arguments. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  38. 38. Theoretical Approach to Understanding How Consumers Respond to AdvertisingA framework for studying how advertising works. Advertising Input Message content, media scheduling, repetition Filters Motivation, ability, (involvement) Consumer Cognition, Affect, Experience Consumer Behaviour Choice, consumption, loyalty, habit, etc. © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited
  39. 39. Managerial Approach to Understanding How Consumers Respond to AdvertisingProcessing and Communication EffectsFigure 3-10 © 2005 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited