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World war i upload

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World war i upload

  1. 1. World War I
  2. 2. Deep attachments to one’s own nation helped unify the people and helped create competition Nationalism
  3. 3. Nations seeking economic growth and expansion Establish and expand global empires Imperialism
  4. 4. Strong competition for control of area Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia-Herzegovinia Balkan Wars
  5. 5. Build-up of military forces among nations Strong military competition Militarism
  6. 6. Hardening of alliance systems Triple Alliance— Triple Entente— Russia was traditionally Serbia’s protector Alliances
  7. 7. Triple Alliance Germany Italy Austria-Hungary
  8. 8. Triple Entente Great Britain Russia France
  9. 9. Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austro-Hungarian throne, and wife, Killed June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo by Serbian Black Hand member, Gavrilo Princip Assassination
  10. 10. Austria issued ultimatum to Serbia; Serbia partially agreed July 25 Summer of 1914 Franz Ferdinand assassinated June 28 Austria declared war on Serbia July 28
  11. 11. Russia mobilized to help Serbia July 30 Germany pledged to support Austria Germany declared war on Russia Aug 1 France allied with Russia
  12. 12. Germany invaded Belgium Aug 3 Germany declared war on France Aug 3 Britain declared war on Germany Aug 4 World War I Begins………..
  13. 13. Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire
  14. 14. Allied Powers Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, Belgium, US, Japan, Montenegro, Italy
  15. 15. The Battles Begin  Schlieffen Plan—Germany’s war plan  drawn up in 1905  called for invasion of neutral Belgium  assumed slow Russian mobilization  allow for quick defeat of French
  16. 16. Problems with Schlieffen Plan  Invaded heavily fortified area of Belgium  Great Britain involved after invasion  Encountered strong resistance  Russian army mobilized quickly  Split Germany forces in East
  17. 17. Downfall of Schlieffen Plan  France attacked Germans in Alsace- Lorraine  Caused delay in German advance  Battle of Marne caused German retreat  Signaled abandonment of Schlieffen Plan  Realized war would not end quickly
  18. 18. Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare Zimmerman Telegram Sinking of 4 US merchant ships US declares war on Germany April 6, 1917 US entry into World War I
  19. 19. Modern War  Submarine warfare  Use to get around blockades and attack enemy shipping  Rapid fire machine guns  Led to trench warfare  Trench warfare  Thousands of miles of ditches for protection  Tanks  Designed to break through barbed wire  Airplanes  Primary function—to observe enemy activities  Poison gas  Introduced by Germans to help break stalemates
  20. 20. The Home Front  Selective Service – 2.8 million drafted War Industries Board – coordinate production of war materials  Daylight savings time  Bonds – Liberty and Victory
  21. 21. Women’s Roles  Women  Fill jobs in factories  Military service • Allowed to enlist in Navy • Fill temporary jobs in Army • Army nurses were only military women allowed to go overseas
  22. 22. African Americans  Served in segregated units in military  “Great Migration”  Movement from South to North to fill factory jobs
  23. 23. Web of War SerbiaAustria- Hungary Germany Russia France Treaty Declared war on Treaty Treaty Declared war on
  24. 24. FranceGermany United States Great Britain Italy Declared war on Treaty Belgium Japan Declaredwaron Australia Canada India New Zealand Union of S.Africa Colonial Territories
  25. 25.  1917 Russia pulls out • Closing Eastern front • American troops arrive  1918  Allies launch Meuse-Argonne Offensive • Final assault  Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates  Germany surrenders  War ends 11th Hour of 11th Day of 11th Month 1918
  26. 26. Treaty of Versailles  “Big Four” : United States, Great Britain, France, Italy Wilson’s Fourteen Points  Plan for peace after war  League of Nations •General association of nations  Help preserve peace  Help prevent future wars
  27. 27. Treaty of Versailles….cont’d  Congress never signed Treaty of Versailles  US never member of League of Nations  Germany’s punishment  Accept blame for causing war  Reduce military  Pay war reparations
  28. 28. Effects of WWI on US  Developments in War  War-torn economies of Europe  Russian Revolution  Industrial demand of wartime  Sacrifices of wartime; disappointment with Versailles Peace Treaty  Effects on US  Boom in US economy; emergence of US as world industrial leader  “Red Scare” in postwar US; suspicion of immigrants  Internal migration in US, especially African Americans to Northern cities  Failure to join League of Nations
  29. 29. The End