DNA FINGERPRINTING AN APPROACH FROM SCENE OF CRIME TO GUILTY FROM DEPARTMENT OF F.M.T Presented By SUBHASMITA PATTANAIK 3 ...
<ul><li>Former Congress worker Mrs. Naina Sahni was  shot dead by 3 firing, by his husband Sushil  Sharma. </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>It is the technique of chemical fragmentation of DNA into unique patterns and matchin...
<ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) </li></ul><ul><li>PCR (Polymerase Chain ...
Flow Chart of Procedure
 
<ul><li>STR Method  </li></ul><ul><li>Uses short tandem repeats that have short  repeated sequences of DNA </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Y-Chromosome Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Called Y-STR method as it is STR analysis of  Y-Chromosomes. </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>MEDICOLEGAL IMPORTANCE   </li></ul><ul><li>Rape  </li></ul><ul><li>Murder Case </li></ul><ul><li>Exoneration of In...
<ul><li>RAPE & MURDER </li></ul><ul><li>Biological sample obtained from body of victim  or  scene of crime is matched with...
<ul><li>EXONERATION </li></ul><ul><li>Motto of Indian Law: </li></ul><ul><li>May 100 accused get escaped, not a single inn...
<ul><li>PATERNITY DISPUTE </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Y-STR Method </li></ul><ul><li>Case: </li></ul><ul><li>Performed in Sal...
<ul><li>IDENTITY ESTABLISHMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DNA sample is matched with first degree relatives  in case of missing per...
DRAWBACKS (1)   Fake DNA Evidence First found in Canada - Dr. Schneeberger (2) Inability to differentiate in monozygotic t...
<ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>DNA fingerprinting is a super successful  technique having success rate of 99.99%. </li>...
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Dna fingerprinting

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ABC of DNA Fingerprinting , by a student ... so upload your powerpoint or send it to me on srp@superknowledge.in

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Dna fingerprinting

  1. 1. DNA FINGERPRINTING AN APPROACH FROM SCENE OF CRIME TO GUILTY FROM DEPARTMENT OF F.M.T Presented By SUBHASMITA PATTANAIK 3 rd Semester Guided By Dr. S.N. Mohanty
  2. 2. <ul><li>Former Congress worker Mrs. Naina Sahni was shot dead by 3 firing, by his husband Sushil Sharma. </li></ul><ul><li>The body was tried to burn in the Tandoor at Bagiya Restaurant New Delhi on 2 nd July 1995, with the help of restaurant manager Keshar Kumar </li></ul><ul><li>The incident was revealed by a police constable. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the first case in India where DNA fingerprinting was used for investigation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>It is the technique of chemical fragmentation of DNA into unique patterns and matching the pattern identity with that obtained from suspects sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Only 5% of total DNA codes for protein called gene. </li></ul><ul><li>Rest 95% DNA is called “Junk DNA” </li></ul><ul><li>Portion of the junk DNA contain hypervariable region. </li></ul><ul><li>These regions are very unique for DNA of each person. </li></ul><ul><li>The polymorphism is always inherited from parents to offspring. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) </li></ul><ul><li>PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) </li></ul><ul><li>AMPFLP Method </li></ul><ul><li>STR Method </li></ul><ul><li>Y-STR Method </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondrial DNA Analysis </li></ul>
  5. 5. Flow Chart of Procedure
  6. 7. <ul><li>STR Method </li></ul><ul><li>Uses short tandem repeats that have short repeated sequences of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Different people possess different number of repeat units. </li></ul><ul><li>STR loci are targeted with sequence specific primer and are amplified by PCR. </li></ul><ul><li>The DNA fragments are separated by electrophoresis. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualisation is either through use of fluoroscently tagged dyes in primer or by silver staining. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Y-Chromosome Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Called Y-STR method as it is STR analysis of Y-Chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for solving of paternity dispute cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondrial Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Directly linked maternal relations are confirmed as mt-DNA is always maternally inherited. </li></ul><ul><li>Also used in cases of non-availability of nuclear DNA. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>MEDICOLEGAL IMPORTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Rape </li></ul><ul><li>Murder Case </li></ul><ul><li>Exoneration of Innocent </li></ul><ul><li>Paternity Dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Paternity Fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Establishment </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>RAPE & MURDER </li></ul><ul><li>Biological sample obtained from body of victim or scene of crime is matched with that of suspect. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases: </li></ul><ul><li>First case of DNA fingerprinting (Colin Pitchfork) Case. </li></ul><ul><li>Convicted of murder of 2 girls after rape in 1986. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood sample of all local males were matched. </li></ul><ul><li>Accused has escaped by giving his friend’s blood in his name. </li></ul><ul><li>Later he was arrested and confirmed to be guilty. </li></ul><ul><li>Priyadarshini Mattoo Rape & Murder Case </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>EXONERATION </li></ul><ul><li>Motto of Indian Law: </li></ul><ul><li>May 100 accused get escaped, not a single innocent should be punished. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases: </li></ul><ul><li>In 2002, DNA testing used to exonerate Douglas Echolas, a man who was wrongfully convicted in 1986 rape case. </li></ul><ul><li>In March 2003, Josiah Sutton was released from a sexual assault charge after 4 years prison. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>PATERNITY DISPUTE </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Y-STR Method </li></ul><ul><li>Case: </li></ul><ul><li>Performed in Sally Hemings controversy to determine if Thomas Jafferson had sired a son with one of his slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>PATERNITY FRAUD CASE </li></ul><ul><li>A case where a man falsely alleged to be a father when he is not actually. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>IDENTITY ESTABLISHMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DNA sample is matched with first degree relatives in case of missing person, or to identity a person from recovered remains. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases: </li></ul><ul><li>Naina Sahni Case </li></ul><ul><li>Noida Killing Case </li></ul><ul><li>Rajiv Gandhi Murder Case </li></ul>
  13. 14. DRAWBACKS (1) Fake DNA Evidence First found in Canada - Dr. Schneeberger (2) Inability to differentiate in monozygotic twins. (3) Protest against DNA fingerprinting due to laboratory error
  14. 15. <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>DNA fingerprinting is a super successful technique having success rate of 99.99%. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been widely used in identity and relation establishment, confirmation of guilty in murder and rape cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Has been accepted as most accurate method in Court of Law </li></ul><ul><li>Also very useful in ‘familial searching’ of crime person. </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be done with non human DNA as in ‘Snowball Case’ or viral or bacterial DNA as in Dr. Richard Case of 1998. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Thank You

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