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WEB CONTENT MANAGEMENT Smita Chandra Librarian Indian Institute of Geomagnetism email@example.com
UNDERSTANDING CONTENT What is „Content‟ How is „Content‟ different from „Data‟ and „Information‟ ? How is content managed ? What is Content Management What is Web Content Management
WHAT IS DATA ? “…facts or information used in deciding or discussing…”. Source : The Oxford Dictionary “…any form of information whether in paper or electronic form. In electronic form, data refers to files and databases, text documents, images and digitally encoded voice and video”. Source : Computer Glossary “is a representation of facts in a formalized manner suitable for some sort of technology system, which is called a database”. Source : Encyclopedia of Library & Information Science
DATA Term appeared in 16th century Two types – Structured Data : eg. address of a supplier, customer‟s list, library catalogue, employee list, etc Unstructured Data : eg. Letters, proposal, etc Data are raw and unprocessed unlike information.
WHAT IS INFORMATION ? “…that portion of the data which impacts our actions, or if missing, or not available will impact our actions” Eliyahu M Goldratt “It is evidence that exists in many forms including traditional sources like data, books or documents, and non-traditional sources like events and objects.” Tomyia J Tidline Information Abstract & Is independent of its form
WHAT IS CONTENT ? Etymology : „contentum‟ – to contain „continere‟ – to hold together or enclosed Content is data or information embodied “things contained in” – Random House Dictionary & the Oxford Dictionary “a list of „preliminaries‟ and chapter headings of a book in their correct order, or of articles in a periodical, with its pages on which they begin” – Harrod‟s Glossary & ALA Glossary
… CONTINUED Literature from 1990‟s takes a broader perspective, inclusive of all type of materials (external or internal) all types of format (multimedia) all data (structured and unstructured) “Information made available by an electronic medium or product” – Microsoft Encarta “Subject matter embodied in some definable format e.g., email messages, spreadsheets, word processing documents, videos, reports, etc. It is a process which generates objects like brochures, price lists, pictures, metadata, etc.” – Today’s Context
CONTENT MANAGEMENT Content management stands for the management of any content ranging from data residing offline on a paper, or in simple Word document to a complex high-volume dynamic web publishing, whether as e-catalogues or portals. “The management of the content by combining rules, process and/or workflows in such a way that centralized (technical) and de-centralized (non-technical) staff can create, edit, manage and publish a variety of content in accordance with a given framework or requirements.”
---CONTINUED CM process creates, manages and develops content while maintaining the content separate from its presentation CM integrates traditional Document Management and Web CM CM helps to scale websites and save on the cost of content change CM helps to fill the gap between building the site and keeping the site‟s content current CM helps to provide dynamic, relevant and timely information CM provides access to escalating unstructured data
---CONTINUED CM is empowering non-technical content contributors CM is removing the burden from the traditional webmasters CM manages content in ways such that the incremental cost of each update cycle and output production shrinks dramatically overtime CM is Business Management
CM as a concept helps Non-technical authors to contribute content Organizations to streamline the workflow Faster updating and managing of unstructured, dynamic content embodied in varied formats Structured and synthesized delivery of content in the format of users‟ choice Management of both online and offline content
CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CMS) A CM „system‟ is a technical environment (hardware tools, software expertise) that supports the systematic processing of digital content from authorship to publication. CMS is a tool or combination of tools to facilitate the efficient and effective production of the desired web pages using the managed content Analogy : difference between CM and CMS is the same as the difference between Library Management and Library Management System (LMS)
Context Diagram Web Surfers Students, Staff Interested Parties Directory and Intranet Security Servers Services Web Content Web PagesWeb Authors Content Management System Template Template Designers Services Provided :- Ease of editing Collaborative Authoring Standard templates Extranet Approved Page Servers Approvers Backup and Archiving Routing and Approval processes Version Control Metadata Management
WHAT IS NOT CONTENT MANAGEMENT It is NOT a library, archive or museum management or cataloguing system It is NOT word processing or other kinds of files, text or presentation It is NOT multimedia application It is NOT authoring tools
Variations Purpose ExamplesEnterprise Content It is a formalized means of e.g. Banks use ECMManagement (ECM) organizing and storing an to keep track of organizations documents, and checks other content, that relate to the organizations processes.Web Content Ensures that complex website e.g. Amazon.comManagement (WCM) content is complete, up-to-date and properly linkedDigital Document Manages complex document- Management ofManagement (DDM) based information so common overlapping and elements can be reused, and constantly changing documents can be dynamically information in assembled for publishing automobile user manualsDigital Asset Allow a mass of multi-media Finding artwork forManagement (DAM) electronic content (photos, developing audio, video, etc) to be stored in advertising creative, a way that a proper content can archiving news, video be easily found clips, etc
---CONTINUED Variations Purpose ExamplesDigital Records Ensuring that critical Management of aManagement (DRM) records are secure but required documentation accessible, and are at a nuclear power plant deleted when should be.Business Process Aligns an organizations Human resources,Management (BPM) business process with finance, customer the needs of the clients . relations, sales and marketing and research
THE CM SPECTRUMData from RDBMS Formatted descriptions Audio/Video, Bitmap filese.g. lists, tables e.g. letters, proposals e.g.mpeg files, wave files Highly Structured Unstructured DRM / DDM CM WCM
WEB CONTENT MANAGEMENT “A set of tasks and processes for managing content explicitly targeted for publication on the web throughout its life from creation to archive.” –Ovum Ltd. “Managing content that drives an externally facing website and facilitating multichannel publishing of content in digital form. --Gartner
COMPARISON BETWEEN CM AND WCM Content Management Web Content ManagementManages both online & offline content Manages content explicitly created for web deliveryInput and output of content is in varied Input and output is in the form of „web-formats document‟Includes wide range of processes like Core functions viz – loading content tosystems and software to manage central repository, managing the contentcontent life-cycle, including publishing the content to the live websiteVarious information technologies put Not all information technologies help totogether make a CM e.g. DDM, DRM, manage web content e.g. DDM, DRM doDAM not fit in the WCM roleThe process includes organizations of The process typically begins after thecontent content is organized. WCM will not support disorganized content
DIFFERENCES WCM is different from Web-Site Management In Web site management content not managed comprehensively, but done on ad-hoc or as-needed basis. WCM offers complete process of content life- cycle in a comprehensive, programmed and scheduled manner. WCM is different from Portal Management Portal is aimed at bringing together information from multiple sources and delivering it directly to the user. WCM is concerned with back-office tasks of managing the creation and maintenance of content and publishing content to a server.
HISTORY OF WCM Content has existed for 5000 years Printed Page Electronic Publishing (1990s) Decentralized Content Information Management Information Technology Imaging Technology Document Management Internet Publishing CM XML, SGML WCM
WEB CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (WCMS)A web content management system (WCMS) isa software system that provides website authoring,collaboration, and administration tools designed toallow users with little knowledge of webprogramming languages or markup languages tocreate and manage website content with relativeease. A robust WCMS provides the foundation forcollaboration, offering users the ability to managedocuments and output for multiple author editingand participation.
CHARACTERISTICS OF WCMS It manages small units of information (web pages) - each unit of information is interconnected via a navigation structure or path. Each unit (web page) is defined by its location on the site There is extensive cross-linking between pages It is focused primarily on page creation and editing It provides a publishing engine that allows created or amended content to be made available to a website visitor It often provides an approval process or workflow that ensures that content is validated before it is released or published to a website.
CAPABILITIES OF WCMS A WCMS typically has the following features: Automated templates Access control Scalable expansion Easily editable content Scalable feature sets Web standards upgrades Workflow management Collaboration Delegation Document management Content virtualization Content syndication Multilingual Versioning
TYPES OF WCMS Offline processing These systems, sometimes referred to as "static site generators", pre-process all content, applying templates before publication to generate web pages. Online processing These systems apply templates on-demand. HTML may be generated when a user visits the page or it is pulled from a web cache. Hybrid systems Hybrid systems combine the offline and online approaches.
ADVANTAGES OF WCMS Low cost Easy customization Easy to use Workflow management
DISADVANTAGES OF WCMS Cost of implementation Cost of maintenance Latency issues Tool mixing
NOTABLE WCMS WordPress is the most popular content management system. It originated as a blogging CMS, but later evolved into a full-fledged CMS. Joomla! is a popular content management system that can be used to easily create and edit webpages, but it is more complex than Wordpress. Drupal is the third top used CMS and originated before WordPress and Joomla. It is more difficult to learn and understand than the above two CMSs, but is the most secure. It powers the White House site.
WCMS IN LIBRARIES Many libraries have started to use content management systems as a tool to build and manage their web presence. The advantages of using a CMS to build a library website include: Separation of content, logic, and data Ability for multiple content providers (many staff members can edit the website, rather than just one expert) Easier or automatic integration with Web 2.0 tools (built in RSS for instance) Many cool add-ons that provide added functionality to the website (an Events Calendar for instance)
SURVEY OF WCMS IN ARLS Reasons for / against considering a new CMSConsidering a new CMS because: Not considering a new CMS because: “[We currently have a very] flexible“[There are lots] of options available.” system … [it] can adapt to complex needs.”“Cascade Server does not suit dynamic “It is controlled by others at thewebpages that often are used in library university.”applications.”“We are now in the process of movingtowards Drupal so that we can benefit from “Campus decision.”the Drupal tools that others create.”“Maintaining a homegrown CMS is achallenge. We’d prefer an open source “We are happy with the features andsystem. However, we’ve yet to find one that capabilities of Drupal. We have briefly lookedmeets all our needs and haven’t had the at other systems, but they seem far lessstaffing to add on the functionality we flexible and suitable to our needs.”needed.”
WHAT TO LOOK OUT FOR WHEN CHOOSING A WCMS ensure that you will be provided with good development and technical support find a CMS that will integrate with (at least) some of your main applications, such as Outlook it should support a degree of document management ensure your CMS is user friendly