Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Se está descargando tu SlideShare. ×

The moderation of comments on French news websites economics, practices and impact on the digital public sphere

Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio

Eche un vistazo a continuación

1 de 16 Anuncio

The moderation of comments on French news websites economics, practices and impact on the digital public sphere

Descargar para leer sin conexión

Presentation at the International Conference Media, Polis, Agora: Journalism & Communication in the Digital Era
September 27-29, 2018, Thessaloniki, Greece

Presentation at the International Conference Media, Polis, Agora: Journalism & Communication in the Digital Era
September 27-29, 2018, Thessaloniki, Greece

Anuncio
Anuncio

Más Contenido Relacionado

Similares a The moderation of comments on French news websites economics, practices and impact on the digital public sphere (20)

Más de smyrnaios (20)

Anuncio

Más reciente (20)

The moderation of comments on French news websites economics, practices and impact on the digital public sphere

  1. 1. The moderation of comments on French news websites economics, practices and impact on the digital public sphere Emmanuel Marty (GRESEC, Univ. Grenoble Alpes) & Nikos Smyrnaios (LERASS, Université de Toulouse) 1
  2. 2. Context Since the mid 2000’s, Internet users’ production is part of online news.  Produsage and gatewatching (Bruns 2010, 2016) User generated content moderation has a big impact upon diversity of news and opinions made available to online audiences It results from different actors: - Publishers - Platforms - Moderation services providers - Internet users The interactions between these actors define the visibility of ideas and therefore constitute a major socio-political issue.
  3. 3. Online participation In the early years of the rise of participative culture, trend to idealize online participation as democratizing public expression On the newsroom’s side an « injunction to be participative », growth of participative initiatives User Generated Content included in journalistic work routines, participative devices (live blogs), etc. Creation of participative websites in France: Rue89, Mediapart, Ring, Le Plus etc.
  4. 4. Online participation Since the end of the 2000’s, dramatic turn with the proliferation of hate speech, harassment and propaganda (Erjavec & Kovačič, 2012 ; Karatzogianni, 2015). Digital newsrooms facing increasing time and money constraints, strong difficulties to handle user generated content such as comments on news sites (Degand, 2011). Legal, ethical and editorial risks. Anonymity: balance between freedom of speech and rudeness/harmful speech Nowadays, for most publishers, audience participation is not considered to be a priority.
  5. 5. Moderation Comment moderation is massively outsourced to specialized subcontractors. Moderators have long been in the shadow, since « invisibility » is essential to their work’ effectiveness In 2015, in France, terrorist attacks in Paris set off a huge flow of violent comments, which made some moderators confide their work experiences 3 main actors in France: Netino, Concileo (massively outsourcing activity in low cost countries), and Atchik
  6. 6. Research questions What are the economic, technical and editorial constraints that surround content moderation services, in charge of the management of comments on French news websites? How do they influence, in the end, the digital news landscape?  Compare the work of moderation, embedded in a broader socio-economic framework and subject to multiple legal, technical and industrial constraints with the quality and diversity of the information that it produces and makes available in the digital public space
  7. 7. Methodology Qualitative sociological analysis 6 semi-structured interviews inside one of the main moderation service providers in France (managing director, operations director, social media manager, supervisor and moderaters) • Quantitative content analysis Semi-automated discourse analysis of 29 000 comments sent to 3 news websites between november 13th and november 16th of 2015, linked to articles relating november 13th terrorist attack in Paris.
  8. 8. Atchik: a case study Created in the 90’s by Bertrand Darrouzet, former executive manager in the telecom sector Main activity: software programs for mobile operators One branch in Denmark and another in France (Toulouse) 2015: revenue= 3,2M €, deficit of 130k€ Part of moderation in global revenue increased by 30% between 2014 and 2015 Customers: Elysée’s FB, Orange, Le Parisien, RTL, La Dépêche du Midi etc. => qualitative positioning About 30 moderators in 2016 (bachelor or master degree)
  9. 9. Working conditions Competition on labor cost because of subcontracting in southern countries (Morocco, Madagascar). Respect of labor code (legal working time, vacation, minimum wage, etc.) but… Very low salaries (minimum wage for a master degree), demanding recruitment process High flexibility: 7d/week, from 6am to 11pm (+ Required time shifts based on peaks in comment activity) No weekends (2 consecutive days off but never Saturday and Sunday) Staff turnover, few career prospects
  10. 10. The daily moderation routine Continuous flow of comments coming from various sources Productivity imperative: 400 comments/h (1 comment each 9 seconds) Continuous surveillance by supervisors, open plan office Recurring arbitrations: between different flows, time spent/precision, permissiveness/strictness Laborious and intense work, demanding strong symbolic resources (political culture, news, handling of complex technical devices) Mental and psychological fatigue, cognitive conflicts Individual and collective defence mechanisms
  11. 11. The daily moderation Illustration of trolling and its moderation: « Il faut faire appliquer les lois, (voile - port de tenue non européenne -) fermer les mosquées temporairement - interdire tout rassemblement ), réclamer la remise de la "peine de mort" pour tous personnes liée aux terrorisme que ce soit avec ou sans action ! car aujourd'hui nous sommes dans la 3° guerre pour notre pays qui plus est sur notre sol, donc a tous ouvrez les yeux et préparez-vous !!!!!! », Benhur1. Posted 22 times on november 14th between 7am and 9pm, above three different articles relating the attacks,  Refused 19 times, accepted 3 times (7h56, 11h et 19h51).
  12. 12. The mechanics of moderation Moderation system can function : - a priori (slower and more expensive, but « safer ») - a posteriori (acculturation with FB, used to moderate low stake issues) Combination of automated system (XML flow filtered according to section, issue and/or keywords) and human intervention Pricing according to the volume of comments and qualitative requirements (delay, etc.)
  13. 13. The impact on diversity Moderation: link between newsroom and audiences, guarantor of the editorial policy Legal chart: incitation to racial hatred, insult, libel, harassment, but also immediate danger and failure to assist a person in danger + Editor chart: more or less permissive editor policy Trends: trolling, conspiracy theories, nationalist and/or racist speech (sometimes coded) Most unpublished content: racist, anti-islamic, insulting and/or violent
  14. 14. The terrorist attack
  15. 15. Conclusion « Invisibility »: part of the moderation function  No material or symbolic retribution of moderation skills and know-how « Digital taylorism »: digital labor, similar to call centers 4 structuring processes: sociopolitic context ; legal framework ; editors’ strategies ; moderation providers’ strategies Human work is not perfect but essential, automated moderation can’t do as well Central issue for platforms such as Google, Facebook, Twitter etc. (Roberts, 2016)
  16. 16. Thanks for your attention!

×