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HOW DO USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND
COMPANY-BROAD ICTs AFFECT
INNOVATIVE WORK BEHAVIOR AND
EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING?
Karolus Kraan, ...
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How do use of social media and Company-broad ICT's affect Innovative work behavior and Employee well-being?

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How do use of social media and Company-broad ICT's affect Innovative work behavior and Employee well-being?

  1. 1. HOW DO USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND COMPANY-BROAD ICTs AFFECT INNOVATIVE WORK BEHAVIOR AND EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING? Karolus Kraan, Steven Dhondt & Tanja de Jong AIM This study aims to assess the consequences for innovative work behavior and employee well-being that result from the use of two, seemingly contrasting, ICT innovations: social media and company-broad ICTs. METHOD Participants: To test our hypotheses we used two waves of the Cohort-study on Social Innovation (CSI). An existing online panel was its sampling frame, and data were collected via web questionnaires. Response rates were high (84% in 2008; 24% 2009 attrition rate). Our net sample contained 3,327 Dutch employees. Our central independent variables were use of (1) Social Media, and/or of (2) Company-broad ICTs, assessed by a - multiple answer - question on computer programs used for the job. Among the answer categories were respectively (1) ‘Instant messaging, Sharepoint, wikis and/or blogs’, and (2) ‘workflow software’, ‘ERP software’, ‘(other) professional accounting software’. Our dependent variables were (1) Innovative Work Behavior (IWB), a 4-item self-report scale on explorative and exploitative behavior concerning product and process - sample item: ‘I contribute significantly to the renewal of products/services for my organization’ (1=never – 7=always); and (2) Employee well-being, conceptualized as Emotional Exhaustion (EE). RESULTS Table 1 presents the results of the multiple linear regressions conducted on Time 2 IWB and EE, with respectively Time 1 IWB and Time 1 EE, and socio- demographics as predictors in Model 1 (M1) (EE models not shown in Table 1). Main effects of Use of Social Media (significant on IWB) and of Company-broad ICTs were added in M2, while M3 contained their interaction term. Figure 1 visualizes this, significant, interaction effect. The results were robust in the M4 adjustment for other Work Organization measures. Social media usage likely supports innovative, active work behavior, whereas it may also increase emotional exhaustion due to information overload. Conversely, pas- sive behavior may be yielded by company-broad Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), such as workflow or ERP software, since these lead to a strong standardization of work. We tested our hypotheses by cohort-data of net 3,327 employees, in 2008 and 2009. Innovative work behavior and emotional exhaustion were each regressed on use of social media and of company-broad ICTs, and their interaction term. Social media usage positively predicted innovative work behavior without affecting emotional exhaustion; use of company-broad ICTs showed no effects. Social media usage without a context of company-broad ICTs, however, favored innovative work behavior most. Time 2 IWB (2009) M1 M2 M3 M4 Independent variables β β β β Time 1 IWB (2008) .58 *** .57 *** .57 *** .55 *** Time 1 Use of Social Media (0=no; 1=yes) .03 * .04 * .03 * Time 1 Use of Company-broad ICTs (0=no; 1=yes) .02 .02 .02 Time 1 Use of Social Media X Use of Company-broad ICTs -.03 * -.03 * Time 1 Quantitative Job Demands .06 *** Time 1 Task Autonomy .06 *** R2 .43 .43 .43 .44 * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001. Note. Analyses adjusted for sex, age, educational attainment, and occupation. Table 1. Results of the regressions of Innovative Work Behavior (IWB) yes yes Use of Social Media InnovaƟveWorkBehaviour no no 2,85 2,95 3,05 Company-broad ICTs CONTACT: Karolus Kraan; TNO Work and Employment, The Netherlands. karolus.kraan@tno.nl This research was funded by the special TNO Enabling Technology Program ‘Innovation and Behavior’. Figure 1. Innovative Work Behavior predicted by Use of Social media and Company-broad ICTs CONCLUSIONS This study revealed that: (1) Emerging technologies such as Social Media, can enhance Innovative Work Behavior (IWB) – there was no such effect by company-broad ICTs. (2) In a work organization context not resulting from ‘blueprint’ workflow or ERP solutions, Social Media usage yielded most favorable IWB. (3) There was no support for supposed adverse consequences on Emotional Exhaustion by usage of ‘information overloading’ Social Media. Social MediaHYPOTHESES ICT innovations and associated re-engineering of business processes have entered the workplace. Social media, the newest ICT trend, can provide workers with immediate communication and information, and support innovative work behavior (IWB). It may also, however, increase emotional exhaustion due to information overload. Conversely, company-broad ICTs - such as workflow or ERP software, introduced since the 1990s - standardize company practices and leave little room for innovative behavior, and may thus yield passive behavior.

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